How to format your references using the The Journal of Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meeks, J.C. 2011. Microbiology. Closing the cycle. Science. 334:1508–1509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Modlin, R.L., and B.R. Bloom. 2001. Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional? Science. 294:799–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudley, A.T., M.A. Ros, and C.J. Tabin. 2002. A re-examination of proximodistal patterning during vertebrate limb development. Nature. 418:539–544.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Reineke, J., S. Tenzer, M. Rupnik, A. Koschinski, O. Hasselmayer, A. Schrattenholz, H. Schild, and C. von Eichel-Streiber. 2007. Autocatalytic cleavage of Clostridium difficile toxin B. Nature. 446:415–419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shi, Z.-J. 2014. Homogeneous Catalysis for Unreactive Bond Activation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pickering, R. 2016. Beginning F# 4.0. 2nd ed. 2016. K. Eason, editor. Apress, Berkeley, CA. XXI, 309 p. 37 illus., 33 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, W., M. Kapadia, and D. Terzopoulos. 2010. Full-Body Hybrid Motor Control for Reaching. In Motion in Games: Third International Conference, MIG 2010, Utrecht, The Netherlands, November 14-16, 2010. Proceedings. R. Boulic, Y. Chrysanthou, and T. Komura, editors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 36–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016. UK Has Formally Given The Go-Ahead To Three-Parent Babies. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Patent Policy: Universities’ Research Efforts Under Public Law 96-517. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson, M. 2008. A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2013. An E.V. That Wraps Around a Wheelchair. New York Times. AU2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meeks, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Meeks, 2011; Modlin and Bloom, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Modlin and Bloom, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Reineke et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-1007
ISSN (online)1540-9538
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles