How to format your references using the The Journal of Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Javitt, G. 2010. Which way for genetic-test regulation? Assign regulation appropriate to the level of risk. Nature. 466:817–818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, T.M., and P.R. Cullis. 2004. Drug delivery systems: entering the mainstream. Science. 303:1818–1822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sato, T.K., M. Overduin, and S.D. Emr. 2001. Location, location, location: membrane targeting directed by PX domains. Science. 294:1881–1885.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhao, J., L. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Weng, S. Li, and Y. Jiang. 2014. Developmental tuning of reflexive attentional effect to biological motion cues. Sci. Rep. 4:5558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannataro, M., and P.H. Guzzi. 2011. Data Management of Protein Interaction Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schaltegger, S., D. Zvezdov, I. Alvarez Etxeberria, M. Csutora, and E. Günther eds. . 2015. Corporate Carbon and Climate Accounting. 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham. XII, 257 p. 21 illus., 13 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Balzer, K., and M. Bonitz. 2013. Lattice Systems. In Nonequilibrium Green’s Functions Approach to Inhomogeneous Systems. M. Bonitz, editor. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 75–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. How Octopuses Don’t Get Tangled Up. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. NASA Procurement: The 1973 Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Contractor Selection. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, K. 2014. The lexicographic treatment of color terms. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sang-Hun, C., M. Fackler, A.L. Cowan, and S. Sayare. 2014. Greed Before the Fall. New York Times. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Javitt, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Javitt, 2010; Allen and Cullis, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Cullis, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-1007
ISSN (online)1540-9538
Immunology and Allergy

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