How to format your references using the The Journal of Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander, R.M. 2007. Obituary: Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (1915-2007). Nature. 446:744.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morrison, S.J., and D.T. Scadden. 2014. The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells. Nature. 505:327–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schroder, K., R. Zhou, and J. Tschopp. 2010. The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? Science. 327:296–300.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Doyle, M.R., S.J. Davis, R.M. Bastow, H.G. McWatters, L. Kozma-Bognár, F. Nagy, A.J. Millar, and R.M. Amasino. 2002. The ELF4 gene controls circadian rhythms and flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature. 419:74–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee, G. 2012. Bioethics for beginners. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Cobb, H., O.J.T. Harris, C. Jones, and P. Richardson eds. . 2012. Reconsidering Archaeological Fieldwork: Exploring On-Site Relationships Between Theory and Practice. Springer US, Boston, MA. X, 186 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Tiwari, S. 2008. Tuning Applications for Superior Performance. In AdvancED Flex 3. J. Herrington, E. Elrom, and J. Mostafa, editors. Apress, Berkeley, CA. 145–178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. 2017. What’s ACTUALLY Going On In This Viral Video Of A Newborn Baby “Walking”? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Telecommunications: National Broadband Plan Reflects the Experiences of Leading Countries, but Implementation Will Be Challenging. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokoya, K. 2014. A Historical Analysis of the Contributions of the Black Power Movement to Higher Education: 1960 – 1980. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. 2017. An Attack’s Fresh Resonance. New York Times. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexander, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Alexander, 2007; Morrison and Scadden, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morrison and Scadden, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Doyle et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-1007
ISSN (online)1540-9538
Immunology and Allergy

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