How to format your references using the The Journal of Experimental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Experimental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Godfray, H.C.J. 2011. Ecology. Food and biodiversity. Science. 333:1231–1232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hengel, H., and U.H. Koszinowski. 2010. Virology. A vaccine monkey wrench? Science. 328:51–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, I.M., R. Ranjan, and T.L. Schwarz. 2002. Synaptotagmins I and IV promote transmitter release independently of Ca(2+) binding in the C(2)A domain. Nature. 418:336–340.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Evan, A.T., D.J. Vimont, A.K. Heidinger, J.P. Kossin, and R. Bennartz. 2009. The role of aerosols in the evolution of tropical North Atlantic Ocean temperature anomalies. Science. 324:778–781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1999. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Saad, A., K. Dahal, M. Sarfraz, and R. Roy eds. . 2007. Soft Computing in Industrial Applications: Recent Trends. 39. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XIV, 330 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Babin, A., and A. Figotin. 2016. The Maxwell Equations. In Neoclassical Theory of Electromagnetic Interactions: A Single Theory for Macroscopic and Microscopic Scales. A. Figotin, editor. Springer, London. 89–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Earthquakes Beneath Mount St. Helens Indicate Magma Chamber Is Recharging. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. VA Information Technology: Improvements Needed to Implement Legislative Reforms. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coar, H. 2010. Using mandalas to support grieving female adolescents: A case study. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. 2013. Bolshoi’s Plans for New York Remain Unclear. New York Times. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Godfray, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Godfray, 2011; Hengel and Koszinowski, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hengel and Koszinowski, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Evan et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Experimental Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Med.
ISSN (print)0022-1007
ISSN (online)1540-9538
Immunology and Allergy

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