How to format your references using the Bell Labs Technical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bell Labs Technical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Matyjaszewski, “Chemistry. Architecturally complex polymers with controlled heterogeneity,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6046, pp. 1104–1105, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
O. Toader and S. John, “Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5519, pp. 1133–1135, May 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Yao, L. Xi, and H. Jiang, “Photoacoustic computed microscopy,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4960, May 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Marruzzo, W. Schirmacher, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Ruocco, “Heterogeneous shear elasticity of glasses: the origin of the boson peak,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1407, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. R. Lavi, The Impact of IFRS on Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
W. Duch, J. Kacprzyk, E. Oja, and S. Zadrożny, Eds., Artificial Neural Networks: Biological Inspirations – ICANN 2005: 15th International Conference, Warsaw, Poland, September 11-15, 2005. Proceedings, Part I, vol. 3696. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Quarteroni and F. Saleri, “Numerical differentiation and integration,” in Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave: Second Edition, F. Saleri, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 101–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bell Labs Technical Journal.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Watch Slime Molds Recreate The Intro To Game Of Thrones,” IFLScience, May 25, 2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Trainer Aircraft: Plans to Replace the Existing Fleet,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-89-94, Mar. 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. N. Ramirez, “Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Crawford, “Back to the Digital Drawing Board,” New York Times, p. A25, Jan. 17, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBell Labs Technical Journal
AbbreviationBell Labs Tech. J.
ISSN (print)1089-7089
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles