How to format your references using the Bell Labs Technical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bell Labs Technical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Pirandola, “Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6956, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Pasupathy and E. K. Miller, “Different time courses of learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum,” Nature, vol. 433, no. 7028, pp. 873–876, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Petrides, G. Cadoret, and S. Mackey, “Orofacial somatomotor responses in the macaque monkey homologue of Broca’s area,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7046, pp. 1235–1238, Jun. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Bachnoff, M. Cohen-Kutner, M. Trus, and D. Atlas, “Intra-membrane signaling between the voltage-gated Ca2+-channel and cysteine residues of syntaxin 1A coordinates synchronous release,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1620, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Killops and V. Killops, Introduction to Organic Geochemistry. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2004.
An edited book
M. Vázquez, Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System, vol. 331. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Wefel and P. Molitor, “Client Hardware-Token Based Single Sign-On over Several Servers without Trusted Online Third Party Server,” in Advances in Information Security and Its Application: Third International Conference, ISA 2009, Seoul, Korea, June 25-27, 2009. Proceedings, J. H. Park, J. Zhan, C. Lee, G. Wang, T.-H. Kim, and S.-S. Yeo, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bell Labs Technical Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Why Are Off-Label Medicines Prescribed?,” IFLScience, 03-Sep-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Embedded Computer Systems: C-17 Software Development Problems,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-IMTEC-92-4, Nov. 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Nagarajan, “Migration, remittances, and household health: Evidence from South Africa,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, “My Other Job, Crazy as It Is, Keeps Me Sane,” New York Times, p. BU2, 15-Feb-2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBell Labs Technical Journal
AbbreviationBell Labs Tech. J.
ISSN (print)1089-7089
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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