How to format your references using the IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. A. Segre, “MICROBIOME. Microbial growth dynamics and human disease,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6252, pp. 1058–1059, Sep. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Tarlinton and K. Good-Jacobson, “Diversity among memory B cells: origin, consequences, and utility,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6151, pp. 1205–1211, Sep. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Shimojo, Y. Kamitani, and S. Nishida, “Afterimage of perceptually filled-in surface,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5535, pp. 1677–1680, Aug. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. V. Mora, M. Davison, J. M. Wild, and M. M. Walker, “Magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon,” Nature, vol. 432, no. 7016, pp. 508–511, Nov. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Polushkin, Nuclear Electronics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
V. V. Bellur, Ed., The 1980’s: A Decade of Marketing Challenges: Proceedings of the 1981 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Thouti, K. Sivani, and K. Kishan Rao, “Performance Index of the Outage Probability for Two-Relay Decode and Forward Cooperative Communications,” in Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications: ERCICA 2015, Volume 3, N. R. Shetty, N. H. Prasad, and N. Nalini, Eds. Singapore: Springer, 2016, pp. 35–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Secrets Behind Beetle’s Explosive Properties Revealed,” IFLScience, May 04, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA’s X-33 and X-34 Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-01-1041R, Aug. 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Francom, “Análisis sociolingüístico de eleccion de lengua en encuentros de servicio: Una perspectiva etnográfica y experimental,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, “Muscovites Replace ‘This Old House’ With ‘Changing Rooms,’” New York Times, p. 92, Oct. 12, 2003.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
AbbreviationIEEE Comput. Graph. Appl.
ISSN (print)0272-1716
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

Other styles