How to format your references using the Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cumming, B.G. An unexpected specialization for horizontal disparity in primate primary visual cortex. Nature 2002, 418, 633–636.
A journal article with 2 authors
Naya, Y.; Suzuki, W.A. Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe. Science 2011, 333, 773–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zwieniecki, M.A.; Melcher, P.J.; Michele Holbrook, N.M. Hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic resistance in plants. Science 2001, 291, 1059–1062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mummery-Widmer, J.L.; Yamazaki, M.; Stoeger, T.; Novatchkova, M.; Bhalerao, S.; Chen, D.; Dietzl, G.; Dickson, B.J.; Knoblich, J.A. Genome-wide analysis of Notch signalling in Drosophila by transgenic RNAi. Nature 2009, 458, 987–992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves, R. Joomla!® Bible; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009; ISBN 9781118255711.
An edited book
Military Logistics: Research Advances and Future Trends; Zeimpekis, V., Kaimakamis, G., Daras, N.J., Eds.; Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 56; ISBN 9783319120744.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, J.; Zhang, X.; Su, Q. Rare Earth Solar Spectral Convertor for Si Solar Cells. In Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and Their Applications: Volume 2; Liu, R.-S., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 139–166 ISBN 9789811015892.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety.

Blog post
Fang, J. Earth-like Plate Tectonics Discovered on Europa (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Investment Management: An Overview of GAO’s Assessment Framework (Exposure Draft); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmidt, M.P. Being here. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. A Maternal Giant, Spinning Tall Tales. New York Times 2016, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety
AbbreviationSafety (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-576X

Other styles