How to format your references using the Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zerhouni, E. Embryonic stem cells. Stem cell programs. Science 2003, 300, 911–912.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rothschild, L.J.; Mancinelli, R.L. Life in extreme environments. Nature 2001, 409, 1092–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khalil, A.M.; Cambier, J.C.; Shlomchik, M.J. B cell receptor signal transduction in the GC is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity. Science 2012, 336, 1178–1181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pennartz, C.M.A.; de Jeu, M.T.G.; Bos, N.P.A.; Schaap, J.; Geurtsen, A.M.S. Diurnal modulation of pacemaker potentials and calcium current in the mammalian circadian clock. Nature 2002, 416, 286–290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohanish, R.P.; Greene, S.A. Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471721635.
An edited book
Kaushik, B.K. Carbon Nanotube Based VLSI Interconnects: Analysis and Design; Majumder, M.K., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer India: New Delhi, 2015; ISBN 9788132220466.
A chapter in an edited book
Corona, I.; Giacinto, G.; Roli, F. Intrusion Detection in Computer Systems Using Multiple Classifier Systems. In Supervised and Unsupervised Ensemble Methods and their Applications; Okun, O., Valentini, G., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 91–113 ISBN 9783540789802.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Super-Earth Discovered Around Nearby Red Dwarf Star Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Determination of the Best Qualified Sites for DOE’s Super Collider; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasami, S. Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Puerto Rico’s Debt Rescue Plan Is Being Called Into Question. New York Times 2015, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety
AbbreviationSafety (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-576X

Other styles