How to format your references using the Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. Rejection of GM Crops Is Not a Failure for Science. Nature 2015, 525, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin, E.; Depinho, R.A. Linking Functional Decline of Telomeres, Mitochondria and Stem Cells during Ageing. Nature 2010, 464, 520–528.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joughin, I.; Abdalati, W.; Fahnestock, M. Large Fluctuations in Speed on Greenland’s Jakobshavn Isbrae Glacier. Nature 2004, 432, 608–610.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Parikshak, N.N.; Swarup, V.; Belgard, T.G.; Irimia, M.; Ramaswami, G.; Gandal, M.J.; Hartl, C.; Leppa, V.; de la Torre Ubieta, L.; Huang, J.; et al. Author Correction: Genome-Wide Changes in LncRNA, Splicing, and Regional Gene Expression Patterns in Autism. Nature 2018, 560, E30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baudin, P. Wireless Transceiver Architecture; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118874813.
An edited book
Elements of a Philosophy of Management and Organization; Koslowski, P., Ed.; Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783642111396.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson, E.; Marcus, A.; Howahl, F.; Karger, D. Talking about Data: Sharing Richly Structured Information through Blogs and Wikis. In The Semantic Web – ISWC 2010: 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 7-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I; Patel-Schneider, P.F., Pan, Y., Hitzler, P., Mika, P., Zhang, L., Pan, J.Z., Horrocks, I., Glimm, B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 48–63 ISBN 9783642177453.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 1/4 of American Adults Do Not Know That The Earth Orbits The Sun Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Research and Development: DOE Could Enhance the Project Selection Process for Government Oil and Natural Gas Research; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyertholen, A.N. Blurring the Lines: The Invention of Abstract in German Literature since 1800. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. A Sisterhood Lays a Foundation in Football. New York Times 2008, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety
AbbreviationSafety (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-576X

Other styles