How to format your references using the Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, R. Making hard light sharper. Nature 2000, 404, 345, 347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becks, L.; Agrawal, A.F. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Nature 2010, 468, 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gustafson, J.L.; Lim, D.; Miller, S.J. Dynamic kinetic resolution of biaryl atropisomers via peptide-catalyzed asymmetric bromination. Science 2010, 328, 1251–1255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feinerman, O.; Veiga, J.; Dorfman, J.R.; Germain, R.N.; Altan-Bonnet, G. Variability and robustness in T cell activation from regulated heterogeneity in protein levels. Science 2008, 321, 1081–1084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palmquist, S.R. Comprehensive Commentary on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118619599.
An edited book
Resilience Thinking in Urban Planning; Eraydin, A., Taşan-Kok, T., Eds.; GeoJournal Library; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; Vol. 106; ISBN 9789400754751.
A chapter in an edited book
Geetika Vyas; Amita Sharma Examining Usability of Classes in Collaboration with SPL Feature Model. In Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology: ICICT 2015, Volume 1; Satapathy, S.C., Bhatt, Y.C., Joshi, A., Mishra, D.K., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 31–37 ISBN 9789811007668.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Simpler, Smaller, Cheaper? Alternatives To Britain’s New Nuclear Power Plant (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office U.S. Postal Service: Postal and Telecommunications Sector Representation in International Organizations; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karyekar, M. Translating observation into narration: The “sentimental” anthropology of Georg Forster (1754-1794). Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Witches of Salem Are Back; You May Be One. New York Times 2016, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety
AbbreviationSafety (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-576X

Other styles