How to format your references using the Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Welcome Competition. Nature 2004, 432, 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collinge, J.; Clarke, A.R. A General Model of Prion Strains and Their Pathogenicity. Science 2007, 318, 930–936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, B.; Munroe, P.; Wang, G. Ruthenium Nanocrystals as Cathode Catalysts for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with a Superior Performance. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harris, K.D.; Henze, D.A.; Hirase, H.; Leinekugel, X.; Dragoi, G.; Czurkó, A.; Buzsáki, G. Spike Train Dynamics Predicts Theta-Related Phase Precession in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells. Nature 2002, 417, 738–741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kothari, V. Credit Derivatives and Structured Credit Trading; John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.: 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809, 2008; ISBN 9781118390412.
An edited book
Foot and Ankle Disorders: An Illustrated Reference; Jung, H.-G., Ed.; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016; ISBN 9783642544927.
A chapter in an edited book
Castillo, K.; Marcellán, F. On Some Recent Results on Asymptotic Behavior of Orthogonal Polynomials on the Unit Circle and Inserting Point Masses. In Computation, Cryptography, and Network Security; Daras, N.J., Rassias, M.T., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 75–101 ISBN 9783319182742.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Shark Week Is Lying To People Again (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Approaches to Mitigate Freight Congestion; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bathon, J.M. Examining the Characteristics of School Leaders and of Local Schools Where Indiana Educational Leadership Preparation Programs Place Their Graduates. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. Roaming the Woods, Imagining Gunfire on a Cold War Base. New York Times 2017, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety
AbbreviationSafety (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-576X

Other styles