How to format your references using the Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Zuk, M. Family values in black and white. Nature 2006, 439, 917.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Jones, J.D.G.; Dangl, J.L. The plant immune system. Nature 2006, 444, 323–329.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Barna, M.; Pandolfi, P.P.; Niswander, L. Gli3 and Plzf cooperate in proximal limb patterning at early stages of limb development. Nature 2005, 436, 277–281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Gelbard-Sagiv, H.; Mukamel, R.; Harel, M.; Malach, R.; Fried, I. Internally generated reactivation of single neurons in human hippocampus during free recall. Science 2008, 322, 96–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Elias, H.-G. Macromolecules; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2009; ISBN 9783527627240.
An edited book
1.
Handbook of Child Well-Being: Theories, Methods and Policies in Global Perspective; Ben-Arieh, A., Casas, F., Frønes, I., Korbin, J.E., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; ISBN 9789048190621.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hedgecock, D.; Coykendall, K. Genetic Risks of Marine Hatchery Enhancement: The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown. In Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities; Bert, T.M., Ed.; Methods and Technologies in Fish Biology and Fisheries; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2007; pp. 85–101 ISBN 9781402008849.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, E. Killing Whales For Science: Japan Is Sent Back To The Drawing Board (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office DOD Participation in the Space Transportation System: Status and Issues; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Regmi, K. Computer Vision and Image Processing Toolbox for MATLAB. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Leland, J. Shepard’s Playground. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety
AbbreviationSafety (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-576X
Scope

Other styles