How to format your references using the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. A. Michael, “Geochemistry. An arsenic forecast for China,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6148, pp. 852–853, Aug. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. A. Micchelli and N. Perrimon, “Evidence that stem cells reside in the adult Drosophila midgut epithelium,” Nature, vol. 439, no. 7075, pp. 475–479, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Kim, S.-M. Park, and K.-H. Cho, “Discovery of a kernel for controlling biomolecular regulatory networks,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2223, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. M. Rosenbaum et al., “Structure and function of an irreversible agonist-β(2) adrenoceptor complex,” Nature, vol. 469, no. 7329, pp. 236–240, Jan. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
An edited book
S. O. Kuznetsov, D. Ślęzak, D. H. Hepting, and B. G. Mirkin, Eds., Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining and Granular Computing: 13th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2011, Moscow, Russia, June 25-27, 2011. Proceedings, vol. 6743. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6743. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Chen, R. Engelberg, C. T. Nguyen, P. Raghavendra, A. Rudra, and G. Singh, “Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Spanning Star Forest Problem,” in Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques: 10th International Workshop, APPROX 2007, and 11th International Workshop, RANDOM 2007, Princeton, NJ, USA, August 20-22, 2007. Proceedings, M. Charikar, K. Jansen, O. Reingold, and J. D. P. Rolim, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 44–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Can You Drink The Water On Mars?,” IFLScience, Oct. 02, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology Management: Coast Guard Practices Can Be Improved,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-01-190, Dec. 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. K. Butler, “Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics,” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Branch, “Granular Perspective on a Suitable Shore,” New York Times, p. B12, Aug. 09, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Annals of the History of Computing
ISSN (print)1058-6180

Other styles