How to format your references using the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Watling, “Deep-sea trawling must be banned,” Nature, vol. 501, no. 7465, p. 7, Sep. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Benoist and D. Mathis, “Mast cells in autoimmune disease,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 875–878, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Emile, A. Le Floch, and F. Vollrath, “Biopolymers: shape memory in spider draglines,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7084, p. 621, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Dang et al., “Cancer-associated IDH1 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7300, p. 966, Jun. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. B. Naini, Facial Aesthetics. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2011.
An edited book
A. V. D. M. Kayem, Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control, vol. 48. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Eriksson, “Using Invariants for Phylogenetic Tree Construction,” in Emerging Applications of Algebraic Geometry, M. Putinar and S. Sullivant, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2009, pp. 89–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “Brain Training – Why It’s No Walk In The Park,” IFLScience, 13-Oct-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Airline Labor Relations: Information on Trends and Impact of Labor Actions,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-03-652, Jun. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Maafi, “Assessment of Volatile Metabolites for In Situ Detection of Fungal Decay of Wood,” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
H. Spencer and B. Sisario, “$3 Million Award in Rolling Stone Case,” New York Times, p. B2, 08-Nov-2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Annals of the History of Computing
ISSN (print)1058-6180

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