How to format your references using the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Cometary dust unveiled,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5678, pp. 1762–1763, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Beuther and P. Schilke, “Fragmentation in massive star formation,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5661, pp. 1167–1169, Feb. 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Dhuime, C. Hawkesworth, and P. Cawood, “Geochemistry. When continents formed,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6014, pp. 154–155, Jan. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Canali et al., “A high-performance thioredoxin-based scaffold for peptide immunogen construction: proof-of-concept testing with a human papillomavirus epitope,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4729, Apr. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Adam, Forensic Evidence in Court. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
M. Katz, Practical RichFaces, Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Banks, “Holographic Cosmology and the Arrow of Time,” in The Arrows of Time: A Debate in Cosmology, L. Mersini-Houghton and R. Vaas, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 69–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.

Blog post
B. Taub, “This Is What Americans Have Been Dying Of Over The Past 35 Years,” IFLScience, Dec. 14, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Inquiry About the Research Grant To Develop a Portable Computer To Record Traffic Information for Verifying the Accuracy of Charges for Telecommunications Service,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-180444, Mar. 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. M. Cox, “Is the Procurement Integrity Act ‘Important’ Enough for the Mandatory Disclosure Rule?: A Look at the Procurement Integrity Act and the Case for its Inclusion in the Mandatory Disclosure Rule,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Zahler and G. Schaller, “Saving More Than Just Snow Leopards,” New York Times, p. SR4, Feb. 02, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Annals of the History of Computing
ISSN (print)1058-6180

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