How to format your references using the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Reichhardt, “NASA pays the price of its dash for Mars,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6778, p. 535, Apr. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
O. Hess and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Applied physics. Metamaterials with quantum gain,” Science, vol. 339, no. 6120, pp. 654–655, Feb. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. J. Gunn, A. Allison, and D. Abbott, “A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6461, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Xu et al., “Sub1A is an ethylene-response-factor-like gene that confers submergence tolerance to rice,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7103, pp. 705–708, Aug. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. R. C. Beaumont, Electricity in fish research and management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
J. Heidrich, M. Oivo, A. Jedlitschka, and M. T. Baldassarre, Eds., Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 14th International Conference, PROFES 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings, vol. 7983. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Broersen, “A Complete STIT Logic for Knowledge and Action, and Some of Its Applications,” in Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies VI: 6th International Workshop, DALT 2008, Estoril, Portugal, May 12, 2008, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, M. Baldoni, T. C. Son, M. B. van Riemsdijk, and M. Winikoff, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Can You Figure Out This Toothpick Brain Teaser?,” IFLScience, Jul. 04, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: DLA Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Management Capability,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-314, Mar. 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. D. Black, “Franz Liszt’s ‘Via Crucis’: A summation of the composer’s styles and beliefs,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, “Lord & Taylor Lets the Light In,” New York Times, p. E6, Oct. 21, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Annals of the History of Computing
ISSN (print)1058-6180

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