How to format your references using the Ethics, Medicine and Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics, Medicine and Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barry C. Infectious disease. More than just bugs in spit. Science 2015;348:633–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bever JD, Wang M. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: hyphal fusion and multigenomic structure. Nature 2005;433:E3-4; discussion E4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schenk P, Matsuyama I, Nimmo F. True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions. Nature 2008;453:368–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tumbula DL, Becker HD, Chang WZ, Söll D. Domain-specific recruitment of amide amino acids for protein synthesis. Nature 2000;407:106–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marteel-Parrish AE, Abraham MA. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
Avron A, Dershowitz N, Rabinovich A, editors. Pillars of Computer Science: Essays Dedicated to Boris (Boaz) Trakhtenbrot on the Occasion of His 85th Birthday. vol. 4800. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Qin B. Efficient Queries Evaluation on Block Independent Disjoint Probabilistic Databases. In: Renz M, Shahabi C, Zhou X, Cheema MA, editors. Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 20th International Conference, DASFAA 2015, Hanoi, Vietnam, April 20-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 74–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics, Medicine and Public Health.

Blog post
Luntz S. Astronomers Observe Traces Of A Galactic Dance. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: More Information Could Help Education Determine the Extent to Which Eligible Servicemembers Serving on Active Duty Benefited from Relief Provided by Lenders and Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton EW. Clinical management and outcomes of patients in the Duke Cryptococcosis Clinical Cohort, 1996 - 2009. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz B. A Button-Down Game Gets a Needed Pinch of Pizazz. New York Times 2017:B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics, Medicine and Public Health
AbbreviationEthics Med. Public Health
ISSN (print)2352-5525

Other styles