How to format your references using the Ethics, Medicine and Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics, Medicine and Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tymoczko D. The geometry of musical chords. Science 2006;313:72–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellegren H, Sheldon BC. Genetic basis of fitness differences in natural populations. Nature 2008;452:169–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barta A, Dorner S, Polacek N. Mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation. Science 2001;291:203.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moser M, Legate KR, Zent R, Fässler R. The tail of integrins, talin, and kindlins. Science 2009;324:895–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bourlès H. Linear Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Müller J, Alt F, Michelis D, editors. Pervasive Advertising. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaitch D, Staring R. The Flesh is Weak, the Spirit Even Weaker Clients and Trafficked Women in the Netherlands. In: Nicola AD, Cauduro A, Lombardi M, Ruspini P, editors. Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Focus on Clients, New York, NY: Springer; 2009, p. 67–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics, Medicine and Public Health.

Blog post
Andrew D. Too Many Tabs – Why Some People Can Multitask Online And Others Can’t. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. VA Education Benefits: Actions Taken, but Outreach and Oversight Could Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amezcua D. Increasing academic success for foster youth: Educational workshops and resource guides: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Curran M. New Yorkers for White Sauce. New York Times 2015:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics, Medicine and Public Health
AbbreviationEthics Med. Public Health
ISSN (print)2352-5525

Other styles