How to format your references using the Ethics, Medicine and Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics, Medicine and Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nowack B. Chemistry. Nanosilver revisited downstream. Science 2010;330:1054–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michalakis Y, Roze D. Evolution. Epistasis in RNA viruses. Science 2004;306:1492–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Y, Chen G, Zhang C. Tunable spin-orbit coupling and quantum phase transition in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Sci Rep 2013;3:1937.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kubo K-I, Entani T, Takara A, Wang N, Fields AM, Hua Z, et al. Collaborative non-self recognition system in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility. Science 2010;330:796–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzik A. Essentials for Occupational Health Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Smith D. Android Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Gervais M, Ubalijoro E. Productive Remembering for Social Action and Change. In: Strong-Wilson T, Mitchell C, Susann A, Pithouse-Morgan K, editors. Productive Remembering and Social Agency, Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013, p. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics, Medicine and Public Health.

Blog post
Evans K. Most Vitamins Are Useless, But There’s One You Could Probably Use. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medicare Computer Systems: Year 2000 Challenges Put Benefits and Services in Jeopardy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson R. Grounding theatricality in reality: The creation of the role of Suzie in “Current Nobody.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bowley G, Ember S. Cosby Legal and Publicity Teams Opt for Silence After Admission Is Released. New York Times 2015:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics, Medicine and Public Health
AbbreviationEthics Med. Public Health
ISSN (print)2352-5525

Other styles