How to format your references using the IDCases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IDCases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Metastasis: Resistance fighters. Nature 2015;528:S128-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen X, Yan G-Y. Semi-supervised learning for potential human microRNA-disease associations inference. Sci Rep 2014;4:5501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frommer WB, Schulze WX, Lalonde S. Plant science. Hexokinase, Jack-of-all-trades. Science 2003;300:261–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bale R, Shirgaonkar AA, Neveln ID, Bhalla APS, MacIver MA, Patankar NA. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines. Sci Rep 2014;4:7329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adam C. Forensic Evidence in Court. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
McAlpine L, Amundsen C, editors. Doctoral Education: Research-Based Strategies for Doctoral Students, Supervisors and Administrators. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Williams K. The Importance of Concepts for Science. In: Williams K, editor. Crossroads: History of Science, History of Art: Essays by David Speiser, vol. II, Basel: Springer; 2011, p. 53–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IDCases.

Blog post
Hale T. Wikipedia Might Not Be The Democratic Community We Think It Is. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Observations of the Test of the Simplifed Method for Determining Eligibility of Persons for Adult Public Assistance Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ganji VG. Exploring the application of haptic feedback guidance for port crane modernization. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schembari J. Factory Masterpieces. New York Times 2017:TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIDCases
ISSN (print)2214-2509

Other styles