How to format your references using the IDCases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IDCases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Choi JR. The effects of nonextensivity on quantum dissipation. Sci Rep 2014;4:3911.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tan S, Lü J. Characterizing the effect of population heterogeneity on evolutionary dynamics on complex networks. Sci Rep 2014;4:5034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ivany LC, Patterson WP, Lohmann KC. Cooler winters as a possible cause of mass extinctions at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Nature 2000;407:887–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Katayama I, Hirauchi K-I, Michibayashi K, Ando J-I. Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by serpentine deformation in the hydrated mantle wedge. Nature 2009;461:1114–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troffaes MCM, Cooman G de. Lower Previsions: Troffaes/Lower Previsions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Oliehoek FA. A Concise Introduction to Decentralized POMDPs. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu X, Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R. Mobile Internet—From PC-Based Internet to PC-Based Internet and Mobile Internet. In: Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R, editors. Business Trends in the Digital Era: Evolution of Theories and Applications, Singapore: Springer; 2016, p. 63–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IDCases.

Blog post
Andrew D. Cosmic Coincidence: The International Space Station Passes By Venus And Saturn. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson KL. Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D. Face to Face With Bergman. New York Times 1994:735.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIDCases
ISSN (print)2214-2509

Other styles