How to format your references using the IBM Journal of Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IBM Journal of Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Marris, “On high alert,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7304, pp. S2-3, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-C. S. Yen and S. J. Elledge, “Identification of SCF ubiquitin ligase substrates by global protein stability profiling,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5903, pp. 923–929, Nov. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. A. Alford, K. S. Bradfield, and S. J. Richards, “Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses,” Nature, vol. 447, no. 7144, pp. E3-4; discussion E5-6, May 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. N. Shahbazi et al., “Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos,” Nature, vol. 552, no. 7684, pp. 239–243, Dec. 2017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Bertau, A. Müller, P. Fröhlich, and M. Katzberg, Industrielle Anorganische Chemie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
M. Steinfeldt, Nanotechnologies, Hazards and Resource Efficiency: A Three-Tiered Approach to Assessing the Implications of Nanotechnology and Influencing its Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
A. B. Vayo, “What the Green Grass Hides: Denial and Deception in Suburban Detroit,” in Gothic Landscapes: Changing Eras, Changing Cultures, Changing Anxieties, S. R. Yang and K. Healey, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 107–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IBM Journal of Research and Development.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “We Could Finally Be Close To Wiping Out HIV From The Body,” IFLScience, Oct. 20, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Medical ADP Systems: Composite Health Care System Is Not Ready to Be Deployed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-92-54, May 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. K. Bankas, “CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families,” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, “Viktor Astafyev, Who Wrote of Rural Russia, Dies at 77,” New York Times, p. F6, Dec. 03, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIBM Journal of Research and Development
AbbreviationIBM J. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)0018-8646
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

Other styles