How to format your references using the IBM Journal of Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IBM Journal of Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Ivell, “Endocrinology. This hormone has been relaxin’ too long!,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5555, pp. 637–638, Jan. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. J. Madix and C. M. Friend, “Interfacial chemistry: gold’s enigmatic surface,” Nature, vol. 479, no. 7374, pp. 482–483, Nov. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.-H. Zhao, X.-P. Chen, and Q. Wang, “Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5376, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. C. Kirk, M. Cartmill, R. F. Kay, and P. Lemelin, “Comment on ‘Grasping primate origins,’” Science, vol. 300, no. 5620, pp. 741; author reply 741, May 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. W. Corrigan, D. Roe, and H. W. H. Tsang, Challenging the Stigma of Mental Illness. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
S. Bernardi, Model-Driven Dependability Assessment of Software Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Togelius, N. Shaker, and J. Dormans, “Grammars and L-systems with applications to vegetation and levels,” in Procedural Content Generation in Games, J. Togelius and M. J. Nelson, Eds., in Computational Synthesis and Creative Systems. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 73–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IBM Journal of Research and Development.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Could This New Clock Redefine The Length Of A Second?,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Higher Education: Use of New Data Could Help Improve Oversight of Distance Education,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-12-39, Nov. 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. O. Ballan, “The selfie generation: Students’ perceptions of classroom incivility in social work education,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “The Newest Tower: Working 24/7,” New York Times, p. 1414, Dec. 09, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIBM Journal of Research and Development
AbbreviationIBM J. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)0018-8646
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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