How to format your references using the IBM Journal of Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IBM Journal of Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Engelhardt, “Neuroscience. Blood-brain barrier differentiation,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6063, pp. 1652–1653, Dec. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. E. Bechler and C. ffrench-Constant, “Neuroscience. A new wrap for neuronal activity?,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6183, pp. 480–481, May 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7128, pp. 627–630, Feb. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Nagpal et al., “PCMdb: pancreatic cancer methylation database,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4197, Feb. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. G. Marx, O. Lambert, and M. D. Uhen, Cetacean Paleobiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
S. Boumerdassi, É. Renault, and S. Bouzefrane, Eds., Mobile, Secure, and Programmable Networking: Second International Conference, MSPN 2016, Paris, France, June 1-3, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 10026. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Di Mizio, V. Di Mizio, R. Della Marra, D. Di Rocco, R. Sciarra, and R. Grassi, “Correlazioni radiologiche,” in Ileo meccanico dell’intestino tenue: Aspetti TC e correlazioni eco-radiografiche, R. D. Mizio and M. Scaglione, Eds. Milano: Springer, 2007, pp. 73–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IBM Journal of Research and Development.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Deepsea Graveyard is Fish Food Bonanza,” IFLScience, May 18, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Higher Education: Improved Tax Information Could Help Pay for College,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-12-863T, Jul. 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Stanton, “On location: Race and family in the poetry of Sonia Sanchez, June Jordan, and Cathy Song,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Rosenberg, “American Airlines Suspends Worker After Episode on Plane,” New York Times, p. A18, Apr. 22, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIBM Journal of Research and Development
AbbreviationIBM J. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)0018-8646
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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