How to format your references using the IBM Journal of Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IBM Journal of Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Aftergood, “ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Polygraph Testing and the DOE National Laboratories,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5493, pp. 939–940, Nov. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Berry and J. Browne, “The other beetle-hunter,” Nature, vol. 453, no. 7199, pp. 1188–1190, Jun. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. A. Davidson, S. E. Trumbore, and R. Amundson, “Soil warming and organic carbon content,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6814, pp. 789–790, Dec. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Forget, R. M. Haberle, F. Montmessin, B. Levrard, and J. W. Head, “Formation of glaciers on Mars by atmospheric precipitation at high obliquity,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5759, pp. 368–371, Jan. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. P. Simko, Strategic Fixed Income Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
L. Mandelker and P. Vajdovich, Eds., Studies on Veterinary Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Rovaris, S. Cugno, V. Forni, P. Cuzziol, E. Molinari, and G. Castelnuovo, “Aspetti fisiologici del dolore,” in Psicologia clinica del dolore, G. Castelnuovo, Ed. Milano: Springer, 2010, pp. 25–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IBM Journal of Research and Development.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Pure Antimalarial Medications Synthesized From Plant Waste Products,” IFLScience, 10-Sep-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s and NASA’s Research and Development Plans for Noise Reduction Are Aligned but the Prospects of Achieving Noise Reduction Goals Are Uncertain,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-384, Feb. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. A. Greenhall, “Elucidating mechanisms of accelerated neurological aging,” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. F. Burghardt, “Climbing the Walls Beats Cabin Fever,” New York Times, p. 14LI16, 20-Nov-2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIBM Journal of Research and Development
AbbreviationIBM J. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)0018-8646
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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