How to format your references using the IBM Journal of Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IBM Journal of Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Schilling, “ASTRONOMY: Watch This Space!,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5477, p. 238b, Jul. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. M. McCollom and B. M. Hynek, “A volcanic environment for bedrock diagenesis at Meridiani Planum on Mars,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7071, pp. 1129–1131, Dec. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Gilg, I. Hanski, and B. Sittler, “Cyclic dynamics in a simple vertebrate predator-prey community,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5646, pp. 866–868, Oct. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. E. Kuznetsov, K. A. Birch, A. I. Boldyrev, X. Li, H.-J. Zhai, and L.-S. Wang, “All-metal antiaromatic molecule: rectangular Al4(4-) in the Li3Al4(-) anion,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5619, pp. 622–625, Apr. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Hase, Handbook of Power Systems Engineering with Power Electronics Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
M. B. Chancellor and A. C. Diokno, Eds., The Underactive Bladder, 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Staab et al., “Semantic Multimedia,” in Reasoning Web: 4th International Summer School 2008, Venice, Italy, September 7-11, 2008, Tutorial Lectures, C. Baroglio, P. A. Bonatti, J. Małuszyński, M. Marchiori, A. Polleres, and S. Schaffert, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 125–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IBM Journal of Research and Development.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Being Obese Could Lower Dementia Risk, But Being Underweight Could Increase Risk,” IFLScience, 10-Apr-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Student Financial Aid Systems: Absence of Guiding Architecture Reduces Efficiency, Ease of Use,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-AIMD-97-147, Jul. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. T. Brown, “Identifying potential co-repressors associated with dexamethasone-induced repression of the MUC5AC gene,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, “Trinity Church Is Sued For Moving a Sculpture,” New York Times, p. C3, 13-Apr-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIBM Journal of Research and Development
AbbreviationIBM J. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)0018-8646
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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