How to format your references using the International Review of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Review of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2012). Time to stop relying on things past. Nature, 492(7429), 313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ottino, J. M., & Lueptow, R. M. (2008). Materials science. On mixing and demixing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5865), 912–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ridgwell, A. J., Kennedy, M. J., & Caldeira, K. (2003). Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and Neoproterozoic ice ages. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5646), 859–862.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mabalirajan, U., Rehman, R., Ahmad, T., Kumar, S., Leishangthem, G. D., Singh, S., et al. (2013). 12/15-lipoxygenase expressed in non-epithelial cells causes airway epithelial injury in asthma. Scientific reports, 3, 1540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohanty, S., & Ghosh, R. (2010). Planning a Scientific Career in Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leong, S. P. L., Kitagawa, Y., & Kitajima, M. (Eds.). (2005). Selective Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Human Solid Cancer (Vol. 127). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Harper, R. H. R. (2014). The Metaphysics of Communications Overload. In R. Murray-Smith (Ed.), Mobile Social Signal Processing: First International Workshop, MSSP 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, September 7, 2010, Invited Papers (pp. 42–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Review of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, September 11). Why The Hell Is This Pig’s Flesh Bright Blue?! IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Informing Our Nation: Improving How to Understand and Assess the USA’s Position and Progress (No. GAO-05-1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Szurgyi, A. A. (2012). Leadership competencies required of Army officers to counter the Improvised Explosive Device threat (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2009, January 18). A Cafe That Caters. New York Times, p. NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston 2012; Ottino and Lueptow 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ottino and Lueptow 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Mabalirajan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Review of Education
AbbreviationInt. Rev. Educ.
ISSN (print)0020-8566
ISSN (online)1573-0638

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