How to format your references using the International Review of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Review of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2004). Coming back to life Montreal. Nature, 430(6996), 274–275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keller, G. B., & Hahnloser, R. H. R. (2009). Neural processing of auditory feedback during vocal practice in a songbird. Nature, 457(7226), 187–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prieto, M. A., Brunetti, G., & Mack, K.-H. (2002). Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5591), 193–195.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schaak, R. E., Klimczuk, T., Foo, M. L., & Cava, R. J. (2003). Superconductivity phase diagram of Na(x)CoO2*1.3H2O. Nature, 424(6948), 527–529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zepernick, H.-J., & Finger, A. (2005). Pseudo Random Signal Processing. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd,.
An edited book
González-Prida Díaz, V. (2014). After–sales Service of Engineering Industrial Assets: A Reference Framework for Warranty Management. (A. Crespo Márquez, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Turner, D. (2006). Privatisation, Decentralisation, and Education in the United Kingdom: The Role of the State. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Decentralisation and Privatisation in Education: The Role of the State (pp. 97–107). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Review of Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, April 6). Astronomers Find Monster Galaxy That lived Fast And Died Young. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Railroad Safety: DOT Faces Challenges in Improving Grade Crossing Safety, Track Inspection Standards, and Passenger Car Safety (No. T-RCED-96-115). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Romano, T. A. (2014). Time-frequency classification of gamma oscillatory activity in the frontoparietal system during working memory (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, February 5). Music Distributor Helps Artists With a Tricky Part: Splitting Royalties. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag 2004; Keller and Hahnloser 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keller and Hahnloser 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaak et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Review of Education
AbbreviationInt. Rev. Educ.
ISSN (print)0020-8566
ISSN (online)1573-0638

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