How to format your references using the Hyperfine Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hyperfine Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ratnieks, F.: Outsmarted by ants. Nature. 436, 465 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuo, I.-F.W., Mundy, C.J.: An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the aqueous liquid-vapor interface. Science. 303, 658–660 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Rowe, T., McBride, E.F., Sereno, P.C.: Dinosaur with a heart of stone. Science. 291, 783 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Billas, I.M.L., Iwema, T., Garnier, J.-M., Mitschler, A., Rochel, N., Moras, D.: Structural adaptability in the ligand-binding pocket of the ecdysone hormone receptor. Nature. 426, 91–96 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker, C., Fincham, B.: Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011)
An edited book
Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., Zhang, Y. eds: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar, S., Barai, S.V.: Crack Propagation Study Using Double-K and Double-G Fracture Parameters. In: Barai, S.V. (ed.) Concrete Fracture Models and Applications. pp. 113–192. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hyperfine Interactions.

Blog post
Hale, T.: What’s The Story Behind These Weird Rock Spheres Found In Siberia?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Responses to Questions for the Record; Hearing on JPDO and the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status and Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitesides, V.J.: The Large Ensemble/European Classical Music Paradigm and African American-Originated Dance-Musicking: A Dispositival Analysis of U.S. Secondary Music Education, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J.: Life Among the Boldface Names, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHyperfine Interactions
AbbreviationHyperfine Interact.
ISSN (print)0304-3843
ISSN (online)1572-9540
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics
Nuclear and High Energy Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles