How to format your references using the Hyperfine Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hyperfine Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaim, W.: Chemistry. Odd electron on nitrogen: a metal-stabilized aminyl radical. Science. 307, 216–217 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Guydosh, N.R., Block, S.M.: Direct observation of the binding state of the kinesin head to the microtubule. Nature. 461, 125–128 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakakura, A., Ukai, A., Ishihara, K.: Enantioselective halocyclization of polyprenoids induced by nucleophilic phosphoramidites. Nature. 445, 900–903 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hu, X., Boccaletti, S., Huang, W., Zhang, X., Liu, Z., Guan, S., Lai, C.-H.: Exact solution for first-order synchronization transition in a generalized Kuramoto model. Sci. Rep. 4, 7262 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M.R., Speight, J.G.: Peak Energy: Myth or Reality? John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Burger, W.: Digital Image Processing: An Algorithmic Introduction using Java. Springer, London (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Hsu, C.-L., Lin, Y.-L., Wu, T.-C., Su, C.-H.: Threshold Convertible Authenticated Encryption Scheme for Hierarchical Organizations. In: Kim, T.-H., Chang, A.C.-C., Li, M., Rong, C., Patrikakis, C.Z., and Ślęzak, D. (eds.) Communication and Networking: International Conference, FGCN 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, Part I. pp. 23–36. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hyperfine Interactions.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: People Who Suffer Migraines Have Different Mouth Bacteria,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Railroad Safety: Engineer Work Shift Length and Schedule Variability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuquero, J.M.: A meta-ethnographic synthesis of support services for adult learners in distance learning programs, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Other School Districts Offered State Intervention, (2008)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHyperfine Interactions
AbbreviationHyperfine Interact.
ISSN (print)0304-3843
ISSN (online)1572-9540
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics
Nuclear and High Energy Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles