How to format your references using the South African Journal of Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smol, J. P. 2012. Climate Change: A planet in flux. Nature 483, S12-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, M., & Barash, S. 2000. Neuronal switching of sensorimotor transformations for antisaccades. Nature 408, 971–975.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rasmussen, L. E. L., Riddle, H. S., & Krishnamurthy, V. 2002. Mellifluous matures to malodorous in musth. Nature 415, 975–976.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Riehle, M. A., Garczynski, S. F., Crim, J. W., Hill, C. A., & Brown, M. R. 2002. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones in Anopheles gambiae. Science 298, 172–175.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake, A. L. 2005. Handbook of Electrical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Siddik, Z. H. (Ed). 2009. Checkpoint Controls and Targets in Cancer Therapy. 1st ed. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Tan, J. 2006. LIMITED DECENTRALIZATION IN THE SINGAPORE EDUCATION SYSTEM.Pages 59–70 in Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions. Bjork, C., ed. EDUCATION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES, CONCERNS AND PROSPECTS. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Could One Million Smart Pool Pumps ‘Store’ Renewable Energy Better Than Giant Batteries? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Evaluations of Even Start Family Literacy Program Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sadr, E. I. 2013. To whisper in the king’s ear: Economists in Pahlavi and Islamic Iran.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walt, S. M. 2017. The Power Of a Strong State Dept. New York Times, A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smol, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Zhang & Barash, 2000; Smol, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang & Barash, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Riehle et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Animal Science
AbbreviationS. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)0375-1589
ISSN (online)2221-4062
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles