How to format your references using the South African Journal of Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2012. Science should be ready to jump off ‘the cliff’. Nature 491, 639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwander, T., & Keller, L. 2008. Genetic compatibility affects queen and worker caste determination. Science 322, 552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walker, J. R., Corpina, R. A., & Goldberg, J. 2001. Structure of the Ku heterodimer bound to DNA and its implications for double-strand break repair. Nature 412, 607–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fishlock, T. W., Oral, A., Egdell, R. G., & Pethica, J. B. 2000. Manipulation of atoms across a surface at room temperature. Nature 404, 743–745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nussbaumer, A., Borges, L., & Davaine, L. 2012. Fatigue Design of Steel and Composite Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Adams, A. A., Brenner, M., & Smith, M. (Eds). 2013. Financial Cryptography and Data Security: FC 2013 Workshops, USEC and WAHC 2013, Okinawa, Japan, April 1, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jochem, E. 2009. Fuel Cell Technologies.Pages 67–104 in Improving the Efficiency of R&D and the Market Diffusion of Energy Technologies. Jochem, E., ed. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Animal Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. The Brightest Ever Supernova Was Actually A Star Being Ripped Apart. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Establishing a Proper Fee Schedule Under the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guo, Z. 2008. Experimental Analysis of Polymer Nanocomposite Foaming Using Carbon Dioxide.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2017. Close Encounter With a Moviemaking Genius. New York Times, C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macarthur, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Koen, 2004; Strunk, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwander & Keller, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Animal Science
AbbreviationS. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)0375-1589
ISSN (online)2221-4062
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles