How to format your references using the South African Journal of Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kawaler, S. D. 2003. Astronomy. Taking the pulse of a massive star. Science 300, 1885–1886.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blazes, D. L., & Russell, K. L. 2011. Medicine in war and peace: joining forces. Nature 477, 395–396.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rankenburg, K., Brandon, A. D., & Neal, C. R. 2006. Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon. Science 312, 1369–1372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song, T., Cai, X., Tu, M. W.-Y., Zhang, X., Huang, B., Wilson, N. P., Seyler, K. L., Zhu, L., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., McGuire, M. A., Cobden, D. H., Xiao, D., Yao, W., & Xu, X. 2018. Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures. Science 360, 1214–1218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheller-Sheridan, C. 2011. Basic Guide to Dental Instruments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
London, J. 2012. Using Technology to Sell: Tactics to Ratchet Up Results (M Lucas, Ed.). Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanders, J. C., Koll, R., & Dull, R. O. 2015. CYP2D6: Where It All Began.Pages 29–32 in A Case Approach to Perioperative Drug-Drug Interactions. Marcucci, C., Hutchens, M.P., Wittwer, E.D., Weingarten, T.N., Sprung, J., Nicholson, W.T., Lalwani, K., Metro, D.G., Dull, R.O., Swide, C.E., Seagull, F.J., Kirsch, J.R., Sandson, N.B., eds. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Animal Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. Our New Pterosaur Fossil Shows Birds And Small Reptiles Flew Side By Side. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Classification and Qualification Standards for the GS-1410 Library-Information Service Series. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Israel, J. M. 2013. Student Extracurricular Participation, Student Achievement, and School Perception: an Elementary School Perspective.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson, J. 2017. University Presses. New York Times, BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kawaler, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kawaler, 2003; Blazes & Russell, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blazes & Russell, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Animal Science
AbbreviationS. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)0375-1589
ISSN (online)2221-4062
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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