How to format your references using the South African Journal of Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levine, J. M. 2016. Ecology: A trail map for trait-based studies. Nature 529, 163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, B. B., & Elledge, S. J. 2000. The DNA damage response: putting checkpoints in perspective. Nature 408, 433–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mace, K. A., Pearson, J. C., & McGinnis, W. 2005. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science 308, 381–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, Y., Christensen, S. K., Fankhauser, C., Cashman, J. R., Cohen, J. D., Weigel, D., & Chory, J. 2001. A role for flavin monooxygenase-like enzymes in auxin biosynthesis. Science 291, 306–309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitschen, K. 2013. Building Reliable Trading Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
He, M. 2012. Metal-Dielectric Interfaces in Gigascale Electronics: Thermal and Electrical Stability (T-M Lu, Ed.). Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Şakul, K. 2011. General Observations on the Ottoman Military Industry, 1774–1839: Problems of Organization and Standardization.Pages 41–55 in Science between Europe and Asia: Historical Studies on the Transmission, Adoption and Adaptation of Knowledge. Günergun, F., Raina, D., eds. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2015. GIF Shows Just How Fast New Horizons Is Travelling. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Early Childhood Programs: Multiple Programs and Overlapping Target Groups. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nespoli, G. 2017. Impact of Supervisor Support on Employee Job Satisfaction Among Fundraising Staff Within Higher Education.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. 2017. Aiding and Abetting Operatic Dabblers. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levine, 2016).
This sentence cites two references (Zhou & Elledge, 2000; Levine, 2016).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou & Elledge, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Animal Science
AbbreviationS. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)0375-1589
ISSN (online)2221-4062
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles