How to format your references using the Middle East Critique citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Middle East Critique. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grützmacher, H. (2000) CHEMISTRY: New Chemical Bricks Made Through Phosphorus Tricks, Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5480), pp. 737–738.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spilianakis, C. G. & Flavell, R. A. (2006) Molecular Biology. Managing Associations between Different Chromosomes, Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5771), pp. 207–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogers Hollingsworth, J., Müller, K. H. & Hollingsworth, E. J. (2008) China: The End of the Science Superpowers, Nature, 454(7203), pp. 412–413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wittmann, C. W. et al. (2001) Tauopathy in Drosophila: Neurodegeneration without Neurofibrillary Tangles, Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5530), pp. 711–714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shi, Z.-J. (2014) Homogeneous Catalysis for Unreactive Bond Activation (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Iguchi, M. (2011) Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems (New York, NY: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Hicks, S. (2012) The Funding of Higher Education in England, in: G. Bell, J. Warwick & P. Galbraith (eds) Higher Education Management and Operational Research: Demonstrating New Practices and Metaphors, pp. 79–94 (Rotterdam: SensePublishers).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Middle East Critique.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) 10 Parasites That Could Be Making Your Body Their Home, IFLScience (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (23 December 1991) Arts Funding: Public Funding Profiles of the NEA States and Cities (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume, D. A. (2013) An Aftercare Program for Female Survivors of Domestic Abuse: A Grant Proposal ( Doctoral dissertation Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (12 May 2011) Scouting Report, New York Times, p. E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleMiddle East Critique
AbbreviationMiddle East Crit.
ISSN (print)1943-6149
ISSN (online)1943-6157
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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