How to format your references using the Middle East Critique citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Middle East Critique. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans, R. L. (2008) Geochemistry. Carbon in Charge, Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5906), pp. 1338–1340.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cadwell, K. & Coscoy, L. (2005) Ubiquitination on Nonlysine Residues by a Viral E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), pp. 127–130.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, K., Zhang, Y. & Wang, S. (2013) Enhancing Thermoelectric Properties of Organic Composites through Hierarchical Nanostructures, Scientific Reports, 3, p. 3448.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ji, M. et al. (2017) Atmospheric Trace Gases Support Primary Production in Antarctic Desert Surface Soil, Nature, 552(7685), pp. 400–403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hübschmann, H.-J. (2015) Handbook of GC-MS (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).
An edited book
Zhou, J. (ed.) (2009) Complex Sciences: First International Conference, Complex 2009, Shanghai, China, February 23-25, 2009, Revised Papers, Part 2. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, 5 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Morazán, M. T. (2014) Bytecode and Memoized Closure Performance, in: J. McCarthy (ed.) Trends in Functional Programming: 14th International Symposium, TFP 2013, Provo, UT, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 58–75 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Middle East Critique.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) Missouri Bill Would Allow Students To “Opt-Out” of Learning Evolution, IFLScience (IFLScience). Available at“opt-out”-learning-evolution/, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (16 January 2000) Gender Equity: Men’s and Women’s Participation in Higher Education (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson, C. L. (2012) Hispanic Female Undergraduates Perception of Nursing as a Career Choice: A Phenomenological Study ( Doctoral dissertation Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cunningham, J. (8 June 2017) Spotting Celebrities on His Lunch Break, New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleMiddle East Critique
AbbreviationMiddle East Crit.
ISSN (print)1943-6149
ISSN (online)1943-6157
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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