How to format your references using the Middle East Critique citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Middle East Critique. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2011) Telomeres: All’s Well That Ends Well, Nature, 478(7368), pp. S13-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oh, D. Y. & Olefsky, J. M. (2010) Medicine. Wnt Fans the Flames in Obesity, Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5990), pp. 397–398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neves, S. R., Ram, P. T. & Iyengar, R. (2002) G Protein Pathways, Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), pp. 1636–1639.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Makris, N. C. et al. (2006) Fish Population and Behavior Revealed by Instantaneous Continental Shelf-Scale Imaging, Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5761), pp. 660–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter, K. B. (2014) Actionable Intelligence (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Wang, L. (2016) Two Decades of Basic Education in Rural China: Transitions and Challenges for Development. New Frontiers of Educational Research (Singapore: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Moore, T., Han, J. & Clayton, R. (2012) The Postmodern Ponzi Scheme: Empirical Analysis of High-Yield Investment Programs, in: A. D. Keromytis (ed.) Financial Cryptography and Data Security: 16th International Conference, FC 2012, Kralendijk, Bonaire, Februray 27-March 2, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 41–56 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Middle East Critique.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016) Lonely Young Star Found In The ‘Middle Of Nowhere’, IFLScience (IFLScience). Available at, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (23 April 1997) Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Financial Crisis Threatens Continued Viability (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theisen, T. D. (2008) Improving the Collaboration Infrastructure of an Online Inter -Institutional Consortium ( Doctoral dissertation Minneapolis, MN: Capella University).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (7 July 2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman, New York Times, p. MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleMiddle East Critique
AbbreviationMiddle East Crit.
ISSN (print)1943-6149
ISSN (online)1943-6157
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

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