How to format your references using the Medicina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greene MT. High achiever. Nature 2000;407:947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casasanto D, Gordon P. Crying “Whorf.” Science 2005;307:1721–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stevens RC, Yokoyama S, Wilson IA. Global efforts in structural genomics. Science 2001;294:89–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang MH, Mao S, Feick H, Yan H, Wu Y, Kind H, et al. Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers. Science 2001;292:1897–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jenkinson J, Hyde T, Ahmad S. Building Blocks for Learning: Occupational Therapy Approaches. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Rosengren S, Dahlén M, Okazaki S, editors. Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. IV): The Changing Roles of Advertising. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Alrumaithi E, Guerrero M, Peña I. The Role of Employee’s Human Capital and the Work Environment on the Creation of Organizational Spin-Offs: Evidence from Spain. In: Baptista R, Leitão J, editors. Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Networks, Knowledge Flows, and Industry Growth, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina.

Blog post
Luntz S. Volcanic Eruptions Cooled Oceans For Centuries. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Satellites: Improvements Needed in NOAA’s Mitigation Strategies as It Prepares for Potential Satellite Coverage Gaps. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen EL. Teacher Evaluation and Student Achievement in Elementary Education. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zernike K. ‘A Crazy Shake.’ Then Metal Tearing, and Chaos. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina
AbbreviationMedicina (Kaunas)
ISSN (print)1010-660X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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