How to format your references using the Medicina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smil V. Laying down the law. Nature 2000;403:597.
A journal article with 2 authors
Russell EV, Israeloff NE. Direct observation of molecular cooperativity near the glass transition. Nature 2000;408:695–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailis R, Ezzati M, Kammen DM. Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science 2005;308:98–103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dial OE, Ashoori RC, Pfeiffer LN, West KW. High-resolution spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron systems. Nature 2007;448:176–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Gyurky SM. The Cognitive Dynamics of Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Branke J, Deb K, Miettinen K, Słowiński R, editors. Multiobjective Optimization: Interactive and Evolutionary Approaches. vol. 5252. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Vezenov DV, Noy A, Lieber CM. Chemical Force Microscopy: Force Spectroscopy and Imaging of Complex Interactions in Molecular Assemblies. In: Noy A, editor. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008, p. 123–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicina.

Blog post
Luntz S. Tusks Tell The Tale Of Mammoth Extinction. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh CT. Molecular Pharmacodynamics of Chemotherapy: Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Inhibitors as Chemosensitizers. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Weighs The Meaning of ‘Obvious.’ New York Times 2006:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicina
AbbreviationMedicina (Kaunas)
ISSN (print)1010-660X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles