How to format your references using the Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haddad, N.M. ECOLOGY. Corridors for people, corridors for nature. Science 2015, 350, 1166–1167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Y.; Hekimi, S. Mitochondrial dysfunction and longevity in animals: Untangling the knot. Science 2015, 350, 1204–1207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dietz, T.; Ostrom, E.; Stern, P.C. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 2003, 302, 1907–1912.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Perez, G.I.; Trbovich, A.M.; Gosden, R.G.; Tilly, J.L. Mitochondria and the death of oocytes. Nature 2000, 403, 500–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton, E. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781118949146.
An edited book
High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: Second International Conference, HiPEAC 2007, Ghent, Belgium, January 28-30, 2007. Proceedings; Bosschere, K.D., Kaeli, D., Stenström, P., Whalley, D., Ungerer, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4367; ISBN 9783540693376.
A chapter in an edited book
Neugebauer, J.; Magenheim, J.; Ohrndorf, L.; Schaper, N.; Schubert, S. Defining Proficiency Levels of High School Students in Computer Science by an Empirical Task Analysis Results of the MoKoM Project. In Informatics in Schools. Curricula, Competences, and Competitions: 8th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, ISSEP 2015, Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 28 - October 1, 2015, Proceedings; Brodnik, A., Vahrenhold, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 45–56 ISBN 9783319253954.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Levitate Nanodiamonds Using Lasers Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA Procurement Assessments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell, S. How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Even as Puerto Rico Was Buckling Under Debt, Investors Hungered for More. New York Times 2017, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHumanities
ISSN (online)2076-0787

Other styles