How to format your references using the Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarti, A. Being Human: Kinship: Race Relations. Nature 2009, 457, 380–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A.P. A Sublimation Model for Martian South Polar Ice Features. Science 2003, 299, 1051–1053.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rabinovich, M.; Huerta, R.; Laurent, G. Neuroscience. Transient Dynamics for Neural Processing. Science 2008, 321, 48–50.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feng, X.; Gao, X.; Pan, D.-B.; Li, B.-W.; Zhang, H. Unpinning of Rotating Spiral Waves in Cardiac Tissues by Circularly Polarized Electric Fields. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wills, B. Purposely Profitable; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781118977958.
An edited book
Service-Oriented Computing – ICSOC 2008: 6th International Conference, Sydney, Australia, December 1-5, 2008. Proceedings; Bouguettaya, A., Krueger, I., Margaria, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 5364; ISBN 9783540896470.
A chapter in an edited book
Moraux, F.; Richard, A. What Moves Euro-Bund Futures Contracts on Eurex? Surprises! In Market Microstructure and Nonlinear Dynamics: Keeping Financial Crisis in Context; Dufrénot, G., Jawadi, F., Louhichi, W., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 129–153 ISBN 9783319052113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Humanities.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Ancient Monkey Blood Found Fossilized In Amber Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Trade Commission: Information on Proposed Regional Restructuring Effort; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turney, J.J. Police Supervisory Attributes That Influence Attitude towards Critical Incident Stress Management Programs. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. Cortlandt to Offer Plan To Lower Fuel Oil Costs. New York Times 2008, WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHumanities
ISSN (online)2076-0787

Other styles