How to format your references using the Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Millis, A.J. Physics. Gaps and Our Understanding. Science 2006, 314, 1888–1889.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clardy, J.; Walsh, C. Lessons from Natural Molecules. Nature 2004, 432, 829–837.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnarez, C.; Marrink, S.J.; Periole, X. Identification of Cardiolipin Binding Sites on Cytochrome c Oxidase at the Entrance of Proton Channels. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1263.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bennett, M.R.; Pang, W.L.; Ostroff, N.A.; Baumgartner, B.L.; Nayak, S.; Tsimring, L.S.; Hasty, J. Metabolic Gene Regulation in a Dynamically Changing Environment. Nature 2008, 454, 1119–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joule, J.A.; Mills, K. Heterocyclic Chemistry at a Glance; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118380208.
An edited book
Chaudhuri, S. Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Evaluation; Mukhopadhyay, U., Ed.; Springer India: New Delhi, 2014; ISBN 9788132218975.
A chapter in an edited book
Alexander, Z.; Mytkowicz, T.; Diwan, A.; Bradley, E. Measurement and Dynamical Analysis of Computer Performance Data. In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis IX: 9th International Symposium, IDA 2010, Tucson, AZ, USA, May 19-21, 2010. Proceedings; Cohen, P.R., Adams, N.M., Berthold, M.R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 18–29 ISBN 9783642130618.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Cancer Could Be As Old As Multicellular Life Itself Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges for Transforming Into a High-Performing Organization; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powers, K.L. Real-Time Video Streaming: Impact on Maternal Anxiety and the Maternal-Infant Bond. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Roach, M. The Mouth’s Guard. New York Times 2013, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHumanities
ISSN (online)2076-0787

Other styles