How to format your references using the Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chyba, C.F. Energy for Microbial Life on Europa. Nature 2000, 403, 381–382.
A journal article with 2 authors
Efferson, C.; Vogt, S. Viewing Men’s Faces Does Not Lead to Accurate Predictions of Trustworthiness. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1047.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasuya, A.; Sakabe, J.-I.; Tokura, Y. Potential Application of in Vivo Imaging of Impaired Lymphatic Duct to Evaluate the Severity of Pressure Ulcer in Mouse Model. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Helgason, A.; Pálsson, S.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Kristjánsson, T.; Stefánsson, K. An Association between the Kinship and Fertility of Human Couples. Science 2008, 319, 813–816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, G. Geotechnik; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783433602867.
An edited book
Fox, P.F. Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry; Uniacke-Lowe, T., McSweeney, P.L.H., O’Mahony, J.A., Eds.; 2nd ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319148915.
A chapter in an edited book
Berkowitz, S. Alternative Method Used to Correct Distorted Neonatal Cleft Arch Forms. In Cleft Lip and Palate; Berkowitz, S., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 35–40 ISBN 9783540234098.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Humanities.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. British Astronaut Tim Peake Is Returning To Earth This Weekend (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Bridge Infrastructure: Matching the Resources to the Need; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flannery, R. Clustering of Cyclic-Nucleotide-Gated Channels in Olfactory Cilia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leshy, J.D.; Squillace, M. The Endangered Antiquities Act. New York Times 2017, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHumanities
ISSN (online)2076-0787

Other styles