How to format your references using the Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley, P. Commission Plots Transgenic Future. Nature 2001, 412, 573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Langer, R.; Tirrell, D.A. Designing Materials for Biology and Medicine. Nature 2004, 428, 487–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wade, J.T.; Hall, D.B.; Struhl, K. The Transcription Factor Ifh1 Is a Key Regulator of Yeast Ribosomal Protein Genes. Nature 2004, 432, 1054–1058.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fedorov, A.V.; Dekens, P.S.; McCarthy, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; deMenocal, P.B.; Barreiro, M.; Pacanowski, R.C.; Philander, S.G. The Pliocene Paradox (Mechanisms for a Permanent El Niño). Science 2006, 312, 1485–1489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schattke, W.; Díez Muiño, R. Quantum Monte Carlo Programming; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783527676729.
An edited book
An Introduction to Health Policy: A Primer for Physicians and Medical Students; Sethi, M.K., Frist, W.H., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461477341.
A chapter in an edited book
Melles, G.R.J. Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty. In Cornea and External Eye Disease; Reinhard, T., Larkin, D.F.P., Eds.; Essentials in Ophthalmology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 65–71 ISBN 9783540226000.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Humanities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. This Guy Is Crazy Enough To Stick His Hand In Liquid Nitrogen Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Shuttle: NASA’s Procurement of Solid Rocket Booster Motors; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros, T.R. A Templated Agarose Scaffold for Axon Guidance in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Dominican Players Hone Skills With AidOf Broomsticks. New York Times 2017, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHumanities
ISSN (online)2076-0787

Other styles