How to format your references using the Journal of Fusion Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fusion Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Z. S. Kolber, Science 312, 1479 (2006).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. E. L. MacLean and B. Hare, Science 348, 280 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. D.-Z. Ge, Y. Sheng, and X. Cai, Sci. Rep. 4, 4821 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. F.-L. Hu, S.-L. Wang, J.-P. Lang, and B. F. Abrahams, Sci. Rep. 4, 6815 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. R. Esmailzadeh, Broadband Telecommunications Technologies and Management (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016).
An edited book
1. K. Roth and I. Gur-Ze’ev, editors , Education in the Era of Globalization (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007).
A chapter in an edited book
1. E. Zivot, in Handbook of Financial Time Series, edited by T. Mikosch, J.-P. Kreiß, R. A. Davis, and T. G. Andersen (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009), pp. 113–155.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fusion Energy.

Blog post
1. D. Andrew, IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, IT Workforce: Key Practices Help Ensure Strong Integrated Program Teams; Selected Departments Need to Assess Skill Gaps (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. V. E. Rivas, Art Appreciation Program for Homeless Children: A Grant Proposal Project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. B. Sisario, New York Times C3 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fusion Energy
AbbreviationJ. Fusion Energy
ISSN (print)0164-0313
ISSN (online)1572-9591
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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