How to format your references using the Innovations in Education and Teaching International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Education and Teaching International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V. (2007). Astronomy. From darkness to light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5844), 1511–1512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes, K. J., & Kennedy, B. K. (2012). Cell biology. Rapamycin paradox resolved. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6076), 1578–1579.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padhi, A. K., Jayaram, B., & Gomes, J. (2013). Prediction of functional loss of human angiogenin mutants associated with ALS by molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific Reports, 3, 1225.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, P., Cao, Y., Jia, D., Li, Q., & Liu, R. (2014). Engineering the metathesis and oxidation-reduction reaction in solid state at room temperature for nanosynthesis. Scientific Reports, 4, 4153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, W. (2014). The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gudmundsson, J. (Ed.). (2008). Algorithm Theory – SWAT 2008: 11th Scandinavian Workshop on Algorithm Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden, July 2-4, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5124). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sojka, A., & Vázquez-García, R. (2013). The Enlarged EU in a Globalized World: A Comparative Analysis of Elite and Public Opinion Support for a Common European Foreign Policy. In A. Boening, J.-F. Kremer, & A. van Loon (Eds.), Global Power Europe - Vol. 1: Theoretical and Institutional Approaches to the EU’s External Relations (pp. 55–72). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Education and Teaching International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 13). Men May Have Learned To Navigate In Order To Find More Mates. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Discretionary Grants: Further Tightening of Education’s Procedures for Making Awards Could Improve Transparency and Accountability (No. GAO-06-268). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunbar, S. (2013). Sideshow: An alluring dichotomy of illusion and humanity (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2016, December 30). Nowhere to Run: Outside Refuges, Cheetahs Face Outsize Threats. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bromm, 2007; Hughes & Kennedy, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hughes & Kennedy, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Padhi, Jayaram, & Gomes, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hu, Cao, Jia, Li, & Liu, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Education and Teaching International
AbbreviationInnov. Educ. Teach. Int.
ISSN (print)1470-3297
ISSN (online)1470-3300

Other styles