How to format your references using the Innovations in Education and Teaching International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Education and Teaching International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clack, J. A. (2002). An early tetrapod from “Romer’s Gap.” Nature, 418(6893), 72–76.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hager, R., & Johnstone, R. A. (2003). The genetic basis of family conflict resolution in mice. Nature, 421(6922), 533–535.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hilgenkamp, H., Moshchalkov, V. V., & Kes, P. (2003). Physics. Flux quanta on the move. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1159–1160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weston, W., Zayas, J., Perez, R., George, J., & Jurecic, R. (2014). Dynamic equilibrium of heterogeneous and interconvertible multipotent hematopoietic cell subsets. Scientific Reports, 4, 5199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verma, J. P. (2016). Sports Research with Analytical Solution Using SPSS®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martin-Gonzalez, A., & Uc-Cetina, V. (Eds.). (2016). Intelligent Computing Systems: First International Symposium, ISICS 2016, Mérida, México, March 16-18, 2016, Proceedings (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 597). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Watanabe, Y., Naganuma, T., Ogawa, T., & Muramoto, K. (2013). Lectins of Marine Origin and Their Clinical Applications. In E. F. Fang & T. B. Ng (Eds.), Antitumor Potential and other Emerging Medicinal Properties of Natural Compounds (pp. 33–54). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Education and Teaching International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 26). Number of Measles Cases Linked To Disneyland Continues To Grow. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Aviation Safety: FAA’s Assessment of Pre-flight Service Technology Options (AIMD-94-137BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston, B. P. (2014). An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, April 19). Justices Hear Case on Right To Choose Defense Counsel. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clack, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Clack, 2002; Hager & Johnstone, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hager & Johnstone, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hilgenkamp et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Weston et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Education and Teaching International
AbbreviationInnov. Educ. Teach. Int.
ISSN (print)1470-3297
ISSN (online)1470-3300

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