How to format your references using the Innovations in Education and Teaching International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Education and Teaching International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zuk, M. (2006). Family values in black and white. Nature, 439(7079), 917.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chameides, W., & Oppenheimer, M. (2007). Climate change. Carbon trading over taxes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5819), 1670.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blumenstock, J., Cadamuro, G., & On, R. (2015). Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6264), 1073–1076.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, J., Kaasik, K., Blackburn, M. R., & Lee, C. C. (2006). Constant darkness is a circadian metabolic signal in mammals. Nature, 439(7074), 340–343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimer, T., & Werner, M. (2004). Die Zukunft der Mikrosystemtechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mukherjee, S., Aarts, R. M., Roovers, R., Widdershoven, F., & Ouwerkerk, M. (Eds.). (2006). AmIware Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence (Vol. 5). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Brillantes, A. B., Jr., & Sonco, J. O. T., II. (2007). Harmonizing Objectives and Outcomes at the National and Sub-National Levels Through Citizen Engagement and Capacity Building (With Special References to the Philippines). In J. Martinez-Vazquez & B. Searle (Eds.), Fiscal Equalization: Challenges in the Design of Intergovernmental Transfers (pp. 95–128). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Education and Teaching International.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, September 19). Gamers Beat Scientists To Discover Proteins’ Shapes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). The Space Transportation System (No. 105609). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamoun, T. J. (2014). A paleopathological survey of ancient Peruvian crania housed at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts: A special emphasis on scurvy [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Woolfe, Z. (2017, May 7). Once Rebels, Now Institutions. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zuk, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Chameides & Oppenheimer, 2007; Zuk, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chameides & Oppenheimer, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Blumenstock et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Education and Teaching International
AbbreviationInnov. Educ. Teach. Int.
ISSN (print)1470-3297
ISSN (online)1470-3300

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