How to format your references using the Innovations in Education and Teaching International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Education and Teaching International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, J. (2003). Meeting aims to find brain’s benchmarks for beauty. Nature, 421(6921), 305.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron, J. L., & Bynum, W. F. (2003). 1904 and all that. Nature, 426(6968), 761–764.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffecker, J. F., Elias, S. A., & O’Rourke, D. H. (2014). Anthropology. Out of Beringia? Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6174), 979–980.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dietrich, L. E. P., Teal, T. K., Price-Whelan, A., & Newman, D. K. (2008). Redox-active antibiotics control gene expression and community behavior in divergent bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5893), 1203–1206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta, J. (2016). Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Neuber, A. A. (Ed.). (2005). Explosively Driven Pulsed Power: Helical Magnetic Flux Compression Generators. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdelgawad, A., & Bayoumi, M. (2012). Proposed Distributed Kalman Filter. In M. Bayoumi (Ed.), Resource-Aware Data Fusion Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks (pp. 77–90). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Education and Teaching International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 28). Remind Me Again, How Does Cannabis Affect The Brain? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 5 (No. 144236). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Julian, A. (2017). Guided Autobiography Themes for Older Adult United States War Veterans [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meier, B. (2017, October 17). Branding Ritual Scarred Women in Secret Circle. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Heilbron & Bynum, 2003; Knight, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heilbron & Bynum, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hoffecker et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dietrich et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Education and Teaching International
AbbreviationInnov. Educ. Teach. Int.
ISSN (print)1470-3297
ISSN (online)1470-3300

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