How to format your references using the Innovations in Education and Teaching International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovations in Education and Teaching International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huch, M. (2015). Regenerative biology: The versatile and plastic liver. Nature, 517(7533), 155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boltasseva, A., & Atwater, H. A. (2011). Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6015), 290–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, S., Bluemle, M. J., & Bates, F. S. (2010). Discovery of a Frank-Kasper sigma phase in sphere-forming block copolymer melts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6002), 349–353.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xu, Y., Feng, L., Jeffrey, P. D., Shi, Y., & Morel, F. M. M. (2008). Structure and metal exchange in the cadmium carbonic anhydrase of marine diatoms. Nature, 452(7183), 56–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, H., & Li, G. (2006). OFDM-Based Broadband Wireless Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chudnovsky, D., & Chudnovsky, G. (Eds.). (2010). Additive Number Theory: Festschrift In Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson (1st ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Demirdache, H., & Uribe-Etxebarria, M. (2008). On the Temporal Syntax of Non-Root Modals. In J. Guéron & J. Lecarme (Eds.), Time and Modality (pp. 79–113). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovations in Education and Teaching International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). Does Bioenergy Have A Green Energy Future In The US? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information Technology: Early Releases of Customs Trade System Operating, but Pattern of Cost and Schedule Problems Needs to Be Addressed (GAO-04-719). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blazer, A. E. (2003). “I Am Otherwise”: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory After the Death of the Subject [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, April 4). Licensing Accord Eases Spotify’s Path to Going Public. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huch, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boltasseva & Atwater, 2011; Huch, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boltasseva & Atwater, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xu et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovations in Education and Teaching International
AbbreviationInnov. Educ. Teach. Int.
ISSN (print)1470-3297
ISSN (online)1470-3300

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