How to format your references using the Human-Wildlife Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human-Wildlife Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond, J. 2001. Unwritten knowledge. Nature 410:521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Snook, R. R., and D. J. Hosken. 2004. Sperm death and dumping in Drosophila. Nature 428:939–941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuno, T., K. Tada, and Y. Watanabe. 2009. Kinetochore geometry defined by cohesion within the centromere. Nature 458:852–858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaefer, C. B., S. K. T. Ooi, T. H. Bestor, and D. Bourc’his. 2007. Epigenetic decisions in mammalian germ cells. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316:398–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamperti, J. W. 1996. Probability: A Survey of the Mathematical Theory. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ma, J. 2007. Forward-Backward Stochastic Differential Equations and their Applications. J. Yong, editor. Volume 1702. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Reid, J. K., D. W. Cockcroft, and B. E. Davis. 2009. Nasal and Bronchial Nonallergic Provocation Tests. Pages 63–79 in R. Pawankar, S. T. Holgate, and L. J. Rosenwasser, editors. Allergy Frontiers: Diagnosis and Health Economics. Springer Japan, Tokyo.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human-Wildlife Interactions.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. Avalanches, Not Geysers, May Be The Cause Of Comet Outbursts. IFLScience. IFLScience. <>. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. ADP Acquisitions: Patent Automation Encountering Major Planning and Procurement Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curtis, K. J. 2010. Mozambican national anthems: Memory, performance, and nation-building. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2016. Sci-Fi Western on HBO? Yes, It’s Dark. New York Times30 September 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Diamond 2001, Snook and Hosken 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Snook and Hosken 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaefer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman-Wildlife Interactions
ISSN (print)2155-3858
ISSN (online)2155-3874

Other styles