How to format your references using the Human-Wildlife Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human-Wildlife Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer, T. 2014. Climate forecasting: build high-resolution global climate models. Nature 515:338–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ezenwa, V. O., and A. E. Jolles. 2015. Epidemiology. Opposite effects of anthelmintic treatment on microbial infection at individual versus population scales. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347:175–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Longrich, N. R., B.-A. S. Bhullar, and J. A. Gauthier. 2012. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. Nature 488:205–208.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maze, I., H. E. Covington 3rd, D. M. Dietz, Q. LaPlant, W. Renthal, S. J. Russo, M. Mechanic, E. Mouzon, R. L. Neve, S. J. Haggarty, Y. Ren, S. C. Sampath, Y. L. Hurd, P. Greengard, A. Tarakhovsky, A. Schaefer, and E. J. Nestler. 2010. Essential role of the histone methyltransferase G9a in cocaine-induced plasticity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327:213–216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., and J. G. Speight. 2016. Peak Energy: Myth or Reality? John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lajtha, A., S. S. Oja, A. Schousboe, and P. Saransaari, editors. 2007. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Amino Acids and Peptides in the Nervous System. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Green, B. 2011. My Deakin Days. Pages 53–64 in R. Tinning and K. Sirna, editors. Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human-Wildlife Interactions.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. The Global Impact Of Air Conditioning: Big And Getting Bigger. IFLScience. IFLScience. <>. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Transportation Security Administration: Clear Policies and Oversight Needed for Designation of Sensitive Security Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, T. L. 2017. The Influence of High School Preparation on Black Male Students’ Ability to Succeed at the Post-Secondary Level. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. 2010. Staying in Touch, for Less. New York Times27 July 2010:TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palmer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Palmer 2014, Ezenwa and Jolles 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ezenwa and Jolles 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Maze et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman-Wildlife Interactions
ISSN (print)2155-3858
ISSN (online)2155-3874

Other styles