How to format your references using the Human-Wildlife Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human-Wildlife Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers, C. S. 2000. Confounding factors in coral reef recovery. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289:391b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chisholm, J. R., and R. Kelley. 2001. Worms start the reef-building process. Nature 409:152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fry, S. N., R. Sayaman, and M. H. Dickinson. 2003. The aerodynamics of free-flight maneuvers in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:495–498.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pradillon, F., B. Shillito, C. M. Young, and F. Gaill. 2001. Deep-sea ecology. Developmental arrest in vent worm embryos. Nature 413:698–699.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Micouin, P. 2014. Model-Based Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhang, L., editor. 2016. Modeling the Injury Flow and Treatment after Major Earthquakes. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Jardetzky, O., and M. D. Finucane. 2007. Tandem Interactions in the trp Repressor System may Regulate Binding to Operator DNA. Pages 49–64 in J. Puglisi, editor. Structure and Biophysics – New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. NATO Science Series, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human-Wildlife Interactions.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016. Watch Live As A New Crew Launches To The ISS Tonight. IFLScience. IFLScience. <>. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2009 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyzlov, A. 2017. In Vivo Efficacy of Lanthanum Carbonate on Intestinal Phosphorus Absorption in Stage Five Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. 2017. Political Bite Gives Colbert Ratings Edge Over Fallon. New York Times7 February 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rogers 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rogers 2000, Chisholm and Kelley 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chisholm and Kelley 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pradillon et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman-Wildlife Interactions
ISSN (print)2155-3858
ISSN (online)2155-3874

Other styles