How to format your references using the Human-Wildlife Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human-Wildlife Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coontz, R. 2012. Mysteries of astronomy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336:1090.
A journal article with 2 authors
Broecker, W. S., and S. Hemming. 2001. Paleoclimate. Climate swings come into focus. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294:2308–2309.
A journal article with 3 authors
Losos, J. B., D. M. Hillis, and H. W. Greene. 2012. Evolution. Who speaks with a forked tongue? Science (New York, N.Y.) 338:1428–1429.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, H., X. Zhu, H. Li, J. Cui, C. Liu, X. Chen, and W. Zhang. 2014. Induction of caspase-3-like activity in rice following release of cytochrome-f from the chloroplast and subsequent interaction with the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Scientific reports 4:5989.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krimpmann, A. 2015. Principles of Group Accounting under IFRS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Purcell, R., and R. Randall, editors. 2016. 21st Century Perspectives on Music, Technology, and Culture: Listening Spaces. Pop Music, Culture and Identity, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Peng, W., X. Jia, and E. Reeves. 2008. Some Detectability Issues in Sensor Networks. Pages 73–99 in S. K. Makki, X.-Y. Li, N. Pissinou, S. Makki, M. Karimi, and K. Makki, editors. Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks: Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human-Wildlife Interactions.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. Sea Anemone Proteins Could Help Reverse Hearing Loss In Humans. IFLScience. IFLScience. <>. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Stakeholder Satisfaction Varies; TSA Could Take Additional Actions to Strengthen Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bauer, S. L. 2017. Work-Life Balanced Culture, Work Flexibility, and Inducements: Impact on Perceived Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intention. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, A. 2015. Latest Economic Lifeline Is a Leafy One. New York Times1 June 2015:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coontz 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Broecker and Hemming 2001, Coontz 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Broecker and Hemming 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman-Wildlife Interactions
ISSN (print)2155-3858
ISSN (online)2155-3874

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