How to format your references using the Human-Wildlife Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human-Wildlife Interactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baillie, J. K. 2014. Translational genomics. Targeting the host immune response to fight infection. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344:807–808.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohd-Sarip, A., and C. P. Verrijzer. 2004. Molecular biology. A higher order of silence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:1484–1485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bao, H., S. Yu, and D. Q. Tong. 2010. Massive volcanic SO(2) oxidation and sulphate aerosol deposition in Cenozoic North America. Nature 465:909–912.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, H., N. Bidère, L. Zheng, A. Cubre, K. Sakai, J. Dale, L. Salmena, R. Hakem, S. Straus, and M. Lenardo. 2005. Requirement for caspase-8 in NF-kappaB activation by antigen receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307:1465–1468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal, H. P. 2012. Utopias. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Pich, A., and W. Richtering, editors. 2011. Chemical Design of Responsive Microgels. Volume 234. Advances in Polymer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinclair, C., and H. Macleod. 2015. Literally Virtual: The Reality of the Online Teacher. Pages 77–99 in P. Jandrić and D. Boras, editors. Critical Learning in Digital Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human-Wildlife Interactions.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. 240-Million-Year-Old “Grandfather Turtle” Was Just Starting to Have a Shell. IFLScience. IFLScience. <>. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs to Ensure Better Coordination When Approving Air Traffic Control Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder, K. 2017. Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 2001. The End of Innocence. New York Times14 October 2001:141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baillie 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Mohd-Sarip and Verrijzer 2004, Baillie 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mohd-Sarip and Verrijzer 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman-Wildlife Interactions
ISSN (print)2155-3858
ISSN (online)2155-3874

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