How to format your references using the Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Highfield, R. (2000). ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Selling Science to the Public. Science 289, 59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sterner, R., and Schmid, F. X. (2004). Biochemistry. De novo design of an enzyme. Science 304, 1916–1917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, C. D., Johnson, D. S., and Sidow, A. (2007). Functional architecture and evolution of transcriptional elements that drive gene coexpression. Science 317, 1557–1560.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rasmussen, S. G. F., DeVree, B. T., Zou, Y., Kruse, A. C., Chung, K. Y., Kobilka, T. S., et al. (2011). Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex. Nature 477, 549–555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroese, D. P., Taimre, T., Botev, Z. I., and Rubinstein, R. Y. (2007). Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method: Solutions Manual to Accompany. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Aycik, G. A. ed. (2009). New Techniques for the Detection of Nuclear and Radioactive Agents. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodrigues, E. R., and Achcar, J. A. (2013). “Some Counting Processes and Ozone Air Pollution,” in Applications of Discrete-time Markov Chains and Poisson Processes to Air Pollution Modeling and Studies SpringerBriefs in Mathematics., ed. J. A. Achcar (New York, NY: Springer), 79–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Domestic Cat Or Lost Lynx? On The Trail Of The ‘Paris Tiger.’ IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Federal R&D Budget. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzanares, M. E. (2012). Effect of a preoperative multidisciplinary education program on weight management after bariatric surgery.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Broderick, J. T., Jr., and George, R. M. (2010). A Nation of Do-It-Yourself Lawyers. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Highfield, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Highfield, 2000; Sterner and Schmid, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sterner and Schmid, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Rasmussen et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Astron. Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-987X

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