How to format your references using the Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manchester, R. N. (2004). Observational properties of pulsars. Science 304, 542–546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsukevich, D. N., and Kuzmich, A. (2004). Quantum state transfer between matter and light. Science 306, 663–666.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weir, A. A. S., Chappell, J., and Kacelnik, A. (2002). Shaping of hooks in New Caledonian crows. Science 297, 981.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Eun, J. K., Guthrie, K. A., Zirpoli, G., and Gadi, V. K. (2013). In situ breast cancer and microchimerism. Sci. Rep. 3, 2192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pompian, M. M. (2009). Advising Ultra-Affluent Clients and Family Offices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Filipe, J., Fred, A., and Sharp, B. eds. (2011). Agents and Artificial Intelligence: Second International Conference, ICAART 2010, Valencia, Spain, January 22-24, 2010. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Enarson, E. (2013). “Two Solitudes, Many Bridges, Big Tent: Women’s Leadership in Climate and Disaster Risk Reduction,” in Research, Action and Policy: Addressing the Gendered Impacts of Climate Change, eds. M. Alston and K. Whittenbury (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 63–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). New And Inexpensive Material Captures Oil But Lets Water Through. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Federal Research Grants: Maintaining Public Accountability Without Inhibiting Creative Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dimick, E. (2015). A Comparative Study on Pheromone Communication between Schizophyllum species.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). All Wrapped Up in McQueen. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manchester, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Manchester, 2004; Matsukevich and Kuzmich, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsukevich and Kuzmich, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Eun et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Astron. Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-987X

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