How to format your references using the Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sumper, M. (2002). A phase separation model for the nanopatterning of diatom biosilica. Science 295, 2430–2433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, J. B., and Ferrell, J. E., Jr (2013). Mitotic trigger waves and the spatial coordination of the Xenopus cell cycle. Nature 500, 603–607.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gong, M., Kirkeminde, A., and Ren, S. (2013). Symmetry-defying iron pyrite (FeS₂) nanocrystals through oriented attachment. Sci. Rep. 3, 2092.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Adams, P. L., Stahley, M. R., Kosek, A. B., Wang, J., and Strobel, S. A. (2004). Crystal structure of a self-splicing group I intron with both exons. Nature 430, 45–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troffaes, M. C. M., and Cooman, G. de (2014). Lower Previsions: Troffaes/Lower Previsions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kacprzyk, J., Petry, F. E., and Yazici, A. eds. (2010). Uncertainty Approaches for Spatial Data Modeling and Processing: A Decision Support Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Franke, A., and Parkes, M. (2013). “The Genetics of Crohn’s Disease,” in Molecular Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, eds. M. D’Amato and J. D. Rioux (New York, NY: Springer), 99–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Tubby Jaguar “Too Fat To Breed,” According To His Keepers. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Aviation Security: Technology’s Role in Addressing Vulnerabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meeks, J. D. (2009). From the belly of the HUAC: The HUAC investigations of Hollywood, 1947–1952.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). At All-Star Game, Politics and Passion Are Also in Play. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sumper, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sumper, 2002; Chang and Ferrell, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang and Ferrell, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Adams et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Astron. Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-987X

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