How to format your references using the Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2002). Cosmology: it all adds up. Nature 420, 731–732.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dupont, S., and Pörtner, H. (2013). Marine science: get ready for ocean acidification. Nature 498, 429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maini, P. K., Baker, R. E., and Chuong, C.-M. (2006). Developmental biology. The Turing model comes of molecular age. Science 314, 1397–1398.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vassylyev, D. G., Vassylyeva, M. N., Zhang, J., Palangat, M., Artsimovitch, I., and Landick, R. (2007). Structural basis for substrate loading in bacterial RNA polymerase. Nature 448, 163–168.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krimpmann, A. (2015). Principles of Group Accounting under IFRS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gherbawy, Y., and Voigt, K. eds. (2010). Molecular Identification of Fungi. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez-de Dios, J. R., Jimenez-Gonzalez, A., de San Bernabe, A., and Ollero, A. (2014). “CONET Integrated Testbed Experiments,” in A Remote Integrated Testbed for Cooperating Objects SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering., eds. A. Jimenez-Gonzalez, A. de San Bernabe, and A. Ollero (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). According To Science, There’s No Such Thing As Race. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, A. A. (2009). A study of the attitudes and opinions of southwest Missouri educators regarding the value and outcome of the performance based teacher evaluation process.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2001). Viktor Astafyev, Who Wrote of Rural Russia, Dies at 77. New York Times, F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2002; Dupont and Pörtner, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dupont and Pörtner, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Vassylyev et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Astron. Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-987X

Other styles