How to format your references using the City citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Serhan, Charles N. 2014. “Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators Are Leads for Resolution Physiology.” Nature 510 (7503): 92–101.
A journal article with 2 authors
Okamoto, Satoshi, and Andrew J. Millis. 2004. “Electronic Reconstruction at an Interface between a Mott Insulator and a Band Insulator.” Nature 428 (6983): 630–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, Jie, Lu Bai, and Michelle D. Wang. 2013. “Transcription under Torsion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6140): 1580–1583.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ishizuka, Koko, Atsushi Kamiya, Edwin C. Oh, Hiroaki Kanki, Saurav Seshadri, Jon F. Robinson, Hannah Murdoch, et al. 2011. “DISC1-Dependent Switch from Progenitor Proliferation to Migration in the Developing Cortex.” Nature 473 (7345): 92–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarkar, Tapan K., Magdalena Salazar-Palma, and Eric L. Mokole. 2007. Physics of Multiantenna Systems and Broadband Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lombardi, Celestino Pio, and Rocco Bellantone, eds. 2016. Minimally Invasive Therapies for Endocrine Neck Diseases. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, Richard S., and David A. Diamond. 2009. “Perinatal Urology.” In Pediatric Nephrology: Sixth Completely Revised, Updated and Enlarged Edition, edited by Ellis Avner, William Harmon, Patrick Niaudet, and Norishige Yoshikawa, 95–106. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Why Have There Been so Many Shark Attacks in North Carolina?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1969. Education Allowance Grants Made to Trust Territory Government Employees. 092692. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzog, Laura. 2013. “Development and Implementation of a Prenatal Postpartum Depression Education Program for Nurse Practitioner Students at California State University Long Beach.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, Michael J. 2017. “Slow Trading Fails to Dent Strong Results for Banks.” New York Times, July 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Serhan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Serhan 2014; Okamoto and Millis 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Okamoto and Millis 2004)
  • Three authors: (Ma, Bai, and Wang 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ishizuka et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity
ISSN (print)1360-4813
ISSN (online)1470-3629
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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