How to format your references using the City citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, Deb. 2004. “Nuts and Bolts. Totally Stumped?” Nature 431 (7009): 722.
A journal article with 2 authors
Acemoglu, Daron, and James Robinson. 2009. “Economics. Foundations of Societal Inequality.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5953): 678–679.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raviv, U., P. Laurat, and J. Klein. 2001. “Fluidity of Water Confined to Subnanometre Films.” Nature 413 (6851): 51–54.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jiang, Dong, Mengmeng Hao, Jingying Fu, Dafang Zhuang, and Yaohuan Huang. 2014. “Spatial-Temporal Variation of Marginal Land Suitable for Energy Plants from 1990 to 2010 in China.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naini, Farhad B. 2011. Facial Aesthetics. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
England, David, Thecla Schiphorst, and Nick Bryan-Kinns, eds. 2016. Curating the Digital: Space for Art and Interaction. Springer Series on Cultural Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Duffuaa, Salih O., and Ahmed E. Haroun. 2009. “Maintenance Control.” In Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering, edited by Mohamed Ben-Daya, Salih O. Duffuaa, Abdul Raouf, Jezdimir Knezevic, and Daoud Ait-Kadi, 93–113. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Seismologists Deploy After A Quake To Learn More, So We Can Prepare For The Next One.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Linking Test Facilities Can Help Leverage Resources and Improve Technology Transfer Efforts. GAO-12-187T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coyle, Maria. 2017. “Pre-Service School Counselor’s Perception of Professional Identity Development During Internship.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. “Abortion Case May Be Central In Confirmation.” New York Times, November 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Koen 2004; Acemoglu and Robinson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Acemoglu and Robinson 2009)
  • Three authors: (Raviv, Laurat, and Klein 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity
ISSN (print)1360-4813
ISSN (online)1470-3629
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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