How to format your references using the City citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, David. 2008. “Shattered Illusions.” Nature 451 (7177): 387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein, Michael L., and Wataru Shinoda. 2008. “Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Self-Assembling Systems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5890): 798–800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bard, Edouard, Frauke Rostek, and Guillemette Ménot-Combes. 2004. “Paleoclimate. A Better Radiocarbon Clock.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5655): 178–179.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Scott, Fiona L., Boguslaw Stec, Cristina Pop, Małgorzata K. Dobaczewska, Jeongeun J. Lee, Edward Monosov, Howard Robinson, Guy S. Salvesen, Robert Schwarzenbacher, and Stefan J. Riedl. 2009. “The Fas-FADD Death Domain Complex Structure Unravels Signalling by Receptor Clustering.” Nature 457 (7232): 1019–1022.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burrows, George E., and Ronald J. Tyrl. 2012. Toxic Plants of North America. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Guimarães, Katia S., Anna Panchenko, and Teresa M. Przytycka, eds. 2009. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: 4th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2009, Porto Alegre, Brazil, July 29-31, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5676. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickering, Sharon, Jude McCulloch, and David Wright-Neville. 2008. “Counter-Terrorism Policing.” In Counter-Terrorism Policing: Community, Cohesion and Security, edited by Jude McCulloch and David Wright-Neville, 91–111. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “Tech Supergroup Team Up To Fight ‘Extreme’ Hate Content On Social Media.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Automated Patent System: Information on PTO’s Program to Automate Patent Information and Processes. T-IMTEC-92-19. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mednick Takami, Lisa. 2017. “Chief Diversity Officers in U.S. Higher Education: Impacting the Campus Climate for Diversity.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Austen, Ian, and Rick Gladstone. 2014. “Gunman’s Attack on Parliament Shakes Ottawa.” New York Times, October 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston 2008; Klein and Shinoda 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Shinoda 2008)
  • Three authors: (Bard, Rostek, and Ménot-Combes 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Scott et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity
ISSN (print)1360-4813
ISSN (online)1470-3629
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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