How to format your references using the City citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohn, Emily. 2015. “Screening: Diagnostic Dilemma.” Nature 528 (7582): S120-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Remondes, Miguel, and Erin M. Schuman. 2002. “Direct Cortical Input Modulates Plasticity and Spiking in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons.” Nature 416 (6882): 736–740.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coppedè, Nicola, Marco Villani, and Francesco Gentile. 2014. “Diffusion Driven Selectivity in Organic Electrochemical Transistors.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4297.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bozovic, I., G. Logvenov, M. A. J. Verhoeven, P. Caputo, E. Goldobin, and T. H. Geballe. 2003. “No Mixing of Superconductivity and Antiferromagnetism in a High-Temperature Superconductor.” Nature 422 (6934): 873–875.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meinert, Curtis L. 2012. Clinical Trials Dictionary. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zaidi, Mohammed K., and Islam Mustafaev, eds. 2005. Radiation Safety Problems in the Caspian Region. Vol. 41. Nato Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kensche, David, Christoph Quix, Mohamed Amine Chatti, and Matthias Jarke. 2007. “GeRoMe: A Generic Role Based Metamodel for Model Management.” In Journal on Data Semantics VIII, edited by Stefano Spaccapietra, Paolo Atzeni, François Fages, Mohand-Saïd Hacid, Michael Kifer, John Mylopoulos, Barbara Pernici, Pavel Shvaiko, Juan Trujillo, and Ilya Zaihrayeu, 82–117. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Brain Training App Could Help Schizophrenia Patients.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Telecommunications: Direct Broadcast Satellite Subscribership Has Grown Rapidly, but Varies across Different Types of Markets. GAO-05-257. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momcheva, Ivelina Gospodinova. 2009. “Environments of Strong Gravitational Lenses.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “How Colbert Finally Got Real.” New York Times, April 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sohn 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Sohn 2015; Remondes and Schuman 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Remondes and Schuman 2002)
  • Three authors: (Coppedè, Villani, and Gentile 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bozovic et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity
ISSN (print)1360-4813
ISSN (online)1470-3629
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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