How to format your references using the City citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conklin, Bruce R. 2009. “Journal Club. A Geneticist Wonders Why We Need to Sleep.” Nature 461 (7264): 573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ong, N. P., and R. J. Cava. 2004. “Physics. Electronic Frustration on a Triangular Lattice.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5680): 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Che, H., J. F. Drake, and M. Swisdak. 2011. “A Current Filamentation Mechanism for Breaking Magnetic Field Lines during Reconnection.” Nature 474 (7350): 184–187.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Daley, Daniel O., Mikaela Rapp, Erik Granseth, Karin Melén, David Drew, and Gunnar von Heijne. 2005. “Global Topology Analysis of the Escherichia Coli Inner Membrane Proteome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5726): 1321–1323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vogel, Werner, and Henry Kalb. 2010. Large-Scale Solar Thermal Power. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Fontes, Magnus, Michael Günther, and Nicole Marheineke, eds. 2014. Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2012. Vol. 19. Mathematics in Industry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bial, Dominik, Thorsten Appelmann, Enrico Rukzio, and Albrecht Schmidt. 2012. “Improving Cyclists Training with Tactile Feedback on Feet.” In Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 7th International Conference, HAID 2012, Lund, Sweden, August 23-24, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Charlotte Magnusson, Delphine Szymczak, and Stephen Brewster, 41–50. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Can Gene Editing Provide a Solution to Global Hunger?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. FCC: Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services Licensees. OGC-98-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scharf, Mark T. 2015. “Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Once a Fill-In Keeper, Now a Winning Scorer.” New York Times, October 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conklin 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conklin 2009; Ong and Cava 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ong and Cava 2004)
  • Three authors: (Che, Drake, and Swisdak 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Daley et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity
ISSN (print)1360-4813
ISSN (online)1470-3629
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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