How to format your references using the Human Brain Mapping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Brain Mapping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dehaene S (2002): Neuroscience. Single-neuron arithmetic. Science 297:1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Darios F, Davletov B (2006): Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids stimulate cell membrane expansion by acting on syntaxin 3. Nature 440:813–817.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sang L, Coller HA, Roberts JM (2008): Control of the reversibility of cellular quiescence by the transcriptional repressor HES1. Science 321:1095–1100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hirata S, Matsuda G, Ueno A, Fukushima H, Fuwa K, Sugama K, Kusunoki K, Tomonaga M, Hiraki K, Hasegawa T (2013): Brain response to affective pictures in the chimpanzee. Sci Rep 3:1342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Theodore L, Kunz RG (2005): Nanotechnology: Environmental Implications and Solutions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee R ed. (2016): Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing 2015 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Vol. 612. Studies in Computational Intelligence.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobolev SL (2006): On Vibrations of a Half-Plane and a Layer with Arbitrary Initial Conditions. In: Demidenko, GV, Vaskevich, VL, editors. Selected Works of S.L. Sobolev: Volume I: Mathematical Physics, Computational Mathematics, and Cubature Formulas. Boston, MA: Springer US. pp 131–167.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Brain Mapping.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015): Smallest Supermassive Black Hole Ever Found Could Reveal How Galaxies Grow. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014): Screening Partnership Program: TSA Has Improved Application Guidance and Monitoring of Screener Performance, and Continues to Improve Cost Comparison Methods. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cebada-Ricalde MC (2014): Synthesis and characterization of PANI-coated VGCNFs and evaluation of its use for corrosion inhibition. Doctoral dissertation; Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2010): In One Sad Day, an Old World Artisan Confronts a New World. New York Times, April 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Brain Mapping
AbbreviationHum. Brain Mapp.
ISSN (print)1065-9471
ISSN (online)1097-0193
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles