How to format your references using the Human Brain Mapping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Brain Mapping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weijer CJ (2003): Visualizing signals moving in cells. Science 300:96–100.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stewart I, Cohen J (2000): Monolith. Nature 408:913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charlesworth JD, Warren TL, Brainard MS (2012): Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit. Nature 486:251–255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yeh S-W, Kug J-S, Dewitte B, Kwon M-H, Kirtman BP, Jin F-F (2009): El Niño in a changing climate. Nature 461:511–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond BC (2008): Legal Aspects of Radiography and Radiology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Roeper T, Speas M eds. (2014): Recursion: Complexity in Cognition. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Vol. 43. Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics.
A chapter in an edited book
Zamani C (2013): Nano-Bio Structures Developed via Electrophoresis. In: Nazarpour, S, editor. Thin Films and Coatings in Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering pp 145–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Brain Mapping.

Blog post
Fang J (2014): New Pterosaur Flew Right Out of Avatar. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014): James Webb Space Telescope: Project Meeting Commitments but Current Technical, Cost, and Schedule Challenges Could Affect Continued Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waidelich LA (2012): Identifying Leadership Potential: The Process of Principals within a Charter School Network. Doctoral dissertation; Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1998): Building a Business, Quarter by Quarter. New York Times, May 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Brain Mapping
AbbreviationHum. Brain Mapp.
ISSN (print)1065-9471
ISSN (online)1097-0193
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles