How to format your references using the Human Brain Mapping citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Brain Mapping. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnitzer MJ (2002): Biological computation: amazing algorithms. Nature 416:683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox K, Caterson B (2002): Neuroscience. Freeing the bain from the perineuronal net. Science 298:1187–1189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boos D, Yekezare M, Diffley JFX (2013): Identification of a heteromeric complex that promotes DNA replication origin firing in human cells. Science 340:981–984.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mitchell DG, Brandt PC, Roelof EC, Dandouras J, Krimigis SM, Mauk BH (2005): Energetic neutral atom emissions from Titan interaction with Saturn’s magnetosphere. Science 308:989–992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary SA (2010): Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Falk M (2011): Laws of Small Numbers: Extremes and Rare Events. Ed. Jürg Hüsler, Rolf-Dieter Reiss. Basel: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Paulheim H (2010): Efficient Semantic Event Processing: Lessons Learned in User Interface Integration. In: Aroyo, L, Antoniou, G, Hyvönen, E, Teije, AT, Stuckenschmidt, H, Cabral, L, Tudorache, T, editors. The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: 7th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2010, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 30 – June 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 60–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Brain Mapping.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013): Anti-aging formula slated to begin human trials. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977): Space Shuttle Facility Program: More Definitive Cost Information Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gutierrez R (2017): Providing Hope: A Systematic Development of a Resource Manual for Mental Health Professionals Treating Latino/a Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation. Doctoral dissertation; Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015): Puerto Rico’s Debt Rescue Plan Is Being Called Into Question. New York Times, September 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Brain Mapping
AbbreviationHum. Brain Mapp.
ISSN (print)1065-9471
ISSN (online)1097-0193
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles