How to format your references using the Pediatric Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ploegh HL. Immunology. Nothing ’gainst time’s scythe can make defense. Science 2004;304(5675):1262–1263.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chittka L, Peng F. Neuroscience. Caffeine boosts bees’ memories. Science 2013;339(6124):1157–1159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gustafson JL, Lim D, Miller SJ. Dynamic kinetic resolution of biaryl atropisomers via peptide-catalyzed asymmetric bromination. Science 2010;328(5983):1251–1255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakamura A, Kobayashi M, Kuraoka M et al. Initial pulmonary respiration causes massive diaphragm damage and hyper-CKemia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy dog. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society. Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements - EBGEO. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
Pikkarainen M, Codenie W, Boucart N, Heredia Alvaro JA, eds. The Art of Software Innovation: Eight Practice Areas to Inspire your Business. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kulyukin V, Kutiyanawala A, Jiang M. Surface-Embedded Passive RF Exteroception: Kepler, Greed, and Buffon’s Needle. In: Indulska J, Ma J, Yang LT, Ungerer T, Cao J, eds. Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 4th International Conference, UIC 2007, Hong Kong, China, July 11-13, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Practice and Research.

Blog post
Taub B. Watch This Wingsuited Daredevil Pull Off The Highest BASE Jump Ever. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Summary of Improvement Actions Taken by the Government Printing Office in the Utilization and Management of Automatic Data Processing Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins J. Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowan AL. Family’s Tenacity and Wealth Put Skakel at Cusp of Freedom. New York Times. November 20, 2013:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Practice and Research
ISSN (print)2147-6470

Other styles