How to format your references using the Pediatric Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norreys PA. Physics. Controlling implosion symmetry around a deuterium-tritium target. Science 2010;327(5970):1208–1210.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ranen MC, Jacobsen SB. Barium isotopes in chondritic meteorites: implications for planetary reservoir models. Science 2006;314(5800):809–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGuire SE, Le PT, Davis RL. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory. Science 2001;293(5533):1330–1333.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Corder R, Douthwaite JA, Lees DM et al. Endothelin-1 synthesis reduced by red wine. Nature 2001;414(6866):863–864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiselton AC. 1 & 2 Thessalonians: Through the Centuries. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Thomas N, Juiz C, eds. Computer Performance Engineering: 5th European Performance Engineering Workshop, EPEW 2008, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, September 24-25, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Mandalenakis H. Economic Recession and Labour Migration. In: Botsiou KE, Klapsis A, eds. The Konstantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2011: The Global Economic Crisis and the Case of Greece. The Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:45–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Practice and Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. An Enormous Crack Has Suddenly Appeared In The Mountain Range Near Yellowstone. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Actions Needed for the BART Airport Extension. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck BM. An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Little Rock Hopes Clinton Presidency Will Put Its Dogpatch Image to Rest. New York Times. November 27, 1992:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Practice and Research
ISSN (print)2147-6470

Other styles