How to format your references using the Pediatric Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bargmann CI. Comparative chemosensation from receptors to ecology. Nature 2006;444(7117):295–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Junge W, Rutherford AW. Obituary: Horst Tobias Witt (1922-2007). Nature 2007;448(7152):425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bence NF, Sampat RM, Kopito RR. Impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by protein aggregation. Science 2001;292(5521):1552–1555.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicewarner-Pena SR, Freeman RG, Reiss BD et al. Submicrometer metallic barcodes. Science 2001;294(5540):137–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hickey R. A Dictionary of Varieties of English. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Garcke J, Griebel M, eds. Sparse Grids and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Safa M, Watts M. Energy Inputs In Pest Control Using Pesticides In New Zealand. In: Pimentel D, Peshin R, eds. Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide Problems, Vol.3. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014:99–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Practice and Research.

Blog post
Davis J. Tens Of Thousands Of Fish Die In Yellowstone River, Prompting Authorities To Close It Down. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Assessment of Small Business Innovation Research Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela MA. Pitties for the Kiddies: An Animal-Assisted Therapy Program. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Case of the Dwindling Docket Mystifies the Supreme Court. New York Times. December 7, 2006:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Practice and Research
ISSN (print)2147-6470

Other styles