How to format your references using the Pediatric Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guo Q. Plant communities: ecosystem maturity and performance. Nature 2005;435(7045):E6; discussion E6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruud J, Brüning JC. Metabolism: Light on leptin link to lipolysis. Nature 2015;527(7576):43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheung WWL, Watson R, Pauly D. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 2013;497(7449):365–368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Marquardt H, Speziale S, Reichmann HJ et al. Elastic shear anisotropy of ferropericlase in Earth’s lower mantle. Science 2009;324(5924):224–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caferra R. Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
D’Atri A. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies: The Italian Association for Information Systems. (Marco MD, Casalino N, eds.). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmüser P, Dohlus M, Rossbach J, Behrens C. One-Dimensional Theory of the High-Gain FEL. In: Dohlus M, Rossbach J, Behrens C, eds. Free-Electron Lasers in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regime: Physical Principles, Experimental Results, Technical Realization. Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:39–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Practice and Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Man With Severed Spinal Cord Walks Again After Cell Transplant. IFLScience 2014. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Property Management: NASA’s Goal of Increasing Equipment Reutilization May Fall Short without Further Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnard S. Police officers’ attitudes about rape victims. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. William Schreyer, 83, Merrill Chief, Dies. New York Times. January 25, 2011:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Practice and Research
ISSN (print)2147-6470

Other styles