How to format your references using the Pediatric Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pryciak PM. Systems biology. Customized signaling circuits. Science 2008;319(5869):1489–1490.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huey RB, Ward PD. Hypoxia, global warming, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions. Science 2005;308(5720):398–401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng Y, Tanaka S, Poon C-S. Comment on “Universality in the evolution of orientation columns in the visual cortex.” Science 2012;336(6080):413; author reply 413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen I-WP, Huang C-Y, Jhou S-HS, Zhang Y-W. Exfoliation and performance properties of non-oxidized graphene in water. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:3928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diamond N. Between Skins. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Gorlatch S, Danelutto M, eds. Integrated Research in GRID Computing: CoreGRID Integration Workshop 2005 (Selected Papers) November 28–30, Pisa, Italy. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Hill J. Compression Garments and Recovery. In: Engel F, Sperlich B, eds. Compression Garments in Sports: Athletic Performance and Recovery. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:89–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Practice and Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Mountains Drive Evolution. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Community Colleges and Technical Schools: Most Schools Use Both Credit and Noncredit Programs for Workforce Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernal E. Ethnographic research of emergent cultural themes from technology-based informal education in a museum. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; Fire Ravages a Russian Cathedral. New York Times. August 26, 2006:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Practice and Research
ISSN (print)2147-6470

Other styles