How to format your references using the Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oreskes N. Beyond the ivory tower. The scientific consensus on climate change. Science. 2004 Dec 3;306(5702):1686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koo HJ, Velev OD. Regenerable photovoltaic devices with a hydrogel-embedded microvascular network. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guo D, Knight TE, McCusker JK. Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer. Science. 2011 Dec 23;334(6063):1684–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Matsuda T, Bebenek K, Masutani C, Hanaoka F, Kunkel TA. Low fidelity DNA synthesis by human DNA polymerase-eta. Nature. 2000 Apr 27;404(6781):1011–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minelli M, Chambers M, Dhiraj A. Big Data, Big Analytics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Nguyen NT, editor. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence VI. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XII, 224 p. 67 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7190).
A chapter in an edited book
Shen Y, Hermans E, Brijs T, Wets G. Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis in Composite Indicator Construction. In: Emrouznejad A, Tavana M, editors. Performance Measurement with Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 89–100. (Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Boy Born Without Eyes, Nose, or Jaw Undergoes Life-Changing Surgery [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost Comparison of House of Representatives Page System Versus Regular Messenger Employees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Sep. Report No.: GGD-83-108.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker HA. Virtual Mate Poaching: A study of the tactics used to poach a potential mate on Social Networking Sites [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Trading a T Square for Showbiz. New York Times. 2016 Aug 4;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal
AbbreviationBiomed. Imaging Interv. J.
ISSN (online)1823-5530
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles