How to format your references using the Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Qi XL. Physics. Symmetry meets topology. Science. 2012 Dec 21;338(6114):1550–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne S, Ingersoll AP. A sublimation model for martian south polar ice features. Science. 2003 Feb 14;299(5609):1051–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duivenvoorden JF, Svenning JC, Wright SJ. Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science. 2002 Jan 25;295(5555):636–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mauk BH, Mitchell DG, Krimigis SM, Roelof EC, Paranicas CP. Energetic neutral atoms from a trans-Europa gas torus at Jupiter. Nature. 2003 Feb 27;421(6926):920–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borgen UJ, Nakrem HA. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of osteolepiform fish. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Martínez-Trinidad JF, Carrasco-Ochoa JA, Kittler J, editors. Advances in Pattern Recognition: Second Mexican Conference on Pattern Recognition, MCPR 2010, Puebla, Mexico, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XIV, 384 p. 178 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6256).
A chapter in an edited book
Nin N, Izquierdo-García JL, Lorente JA. The Metabolomic Approach to the Diagnosis of Critical Illness. In: Vincent JL, editor. Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. State Of Fear: What Should We Do About Sharks In New South Wales? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Alaskan Offshore Shipping: Changing Federal Regulation and Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Aug. Report No.: RCED-88-114BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burns KN. Impact of Cognitive Tasks on Gait Parameters in Collegiate Athletes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. In Prime Time, a Rerun of the President’s Favorite Falsehoods. New York Times. 2017 Mar 16;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal
AbbreviationBiomed. Imaging Interv. J.
ISSN (online)1823-5530
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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