How to format your references using the Palaeoworld citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeoworld. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bennetzen, J., 2002. The rice genome. Opening the door to comparative plant biology. Science 296, 60–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gurdon, J.B., Bourillot, P.Y., 2001. Morphogen gradient interpretation. Nature 413, 797–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer, D.L., Berner, R.A., Park, J., 2007. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. Nature 446, 530–532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oliveira, P.J.C., Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Almeyda, A., Galván-Gildemeister, R., Keene, S., Raybin, R.F., Smith, R.C., 2007. Land-use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon. Science 317, 1233–1236.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smaini, L., 2012. RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ling, H.I., Callisto, L., Leshchinsky, D., Koseki, J. (Eds.), 2007. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis: A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome, March 16–17, 2006, Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Rieber, R.W., Kelly, R.J., 2014. Bedlam in Spyland: Is Bourne Bond?, in: Kelly, R.J. (Ed.), Film, Television and the Psychology of the Social Dream. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 79–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeoworld.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Researchers Develop Mini Rockets To Combat Chemical And Biological Weapons [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. High Speed Ground Transportation: Funds Need to Be Focused Under Proposed Legislation (No. T-RCED-93-45). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuquero, J.M., 2010. A meta-ethnographic synthesis of support services for adult learners in distance learning programs (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2003. The Czar Didn’t Sleep Here. New York Times F1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bennetzen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bennetzen, 2002; Gurdon and Bourillot, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gurdon and Bourillot, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Oliveira et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeoworld
ISSN (print)1871-174X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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