How to format your references using the Palaeoworld citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeoworld. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keeling, R.F., 2005. Comment on “The ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2.” Science 308, 1743; author reply 1743.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards-Kortum, R., Oden, M., 2013. Engineering. Devices for low-resource health care. Science 342, 1055–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ta, V.D., Chen, R., Sun, H.D., 2013. Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets. Sci. Rep. 3, 1362.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouquet, F., Marcenat, C., Steep, E., Calemczuk, R., Kwok, W.K., Welp, U., Crabtree, G.W., Fisher, R.A., Phillips, N.E., Schilling, A., 2001. An unusual phase transition to a second liquid vortex phase in the superconductor YBa2Cu3O7. Nature 411, 448–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marks, K.H., Robbins, L.E., Fernández, G., Funkhouser, J.P., Williams, D.L., 2009. The Handbook of Financing Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Giese, H., Karsai, G., Lee, E., Rumpe, B., Schätz, B. (Eds.), 2010. Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time Systems: International Dagstuhl Workshop, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 4-9, 2007. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Blum, A., 2007. A Theory of Similarity Functions for Learning and Clustering, in: Corruble, V., Takeda, M., Suzuki, E. (Eds.), Discovery Science: 10th International Conference, DS 2007 Sendai, Japan, October 1-4, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeoworld.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Researcher Finds Support For One Of Darwin’s Controversial Theories [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. FTS 2000: Mandatory Use (No. IMTEC-92-33R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, C., 2013. The affect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Asians residing in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cox, R., Hay, G., 2011. When Numbers Eclipse Message. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keeling, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Keeling, 2005; Richards-Kortum and Oden, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richards-Kortum and Oden, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouquet et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeoworld
ISSN (print)1871-174X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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