How to format your references using the Palaeoworld citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeoworld. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mattsson, A.E., 2002. Density functional theory. In pursuit of the “divine” functional. Science 298, 759–760.
A journal article with 2 authors
Relling, M.V., Evans, W.E., 2015. Pharmacogenomics in the clinic. Nature 526, 343–350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, T.-W., Dai, C.-S., Hung, K.-C., 2014. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7274.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hindupur, S.K., Colombi, M., Fuhs, S.R., Matter, M.S., Guri, Y., Adam, K., Cornu, M., Piscuoglio, S., Ng, C.K.Y., Betz, C., Liko, D., Quagliata, L., Moes, S., Jenoe, P., Terracciano, L.M., Heim, M.H., Hunter, T., Hall, M.N., 2018. The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor. Nature 555, 678–682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Münch, V., 2009. Patente, Marken, Design von A bis Z. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Logothetidis, S. (Ed.), 2012. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, NanoScience and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Haas, M., Mittnik, S., 2008. Portfolio Selection with Common Correlation Mixture Models, in: Bol, G., Rachev, S.T., Würth, R. (Eds.), Risk Assessment: Decisions in Banking and Finance, Contributions to Economics. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 47–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeoworld.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. The Weather Channel Shuts Down Breitbart For Misleading Climate Change Article [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. [Comments on Claim for Excess Valuation Charge] (No. B-254831). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Papp, T.M., 2017. CrashAppTM–Concurrent Multiple Stakeholder Evaluation of a DSR Artefact (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., Silver-Greenberg, J., 2017. Suits Say Lender Duped Students to Fuel Growth. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mattsson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Mattsson, 2002; Relling and Evans, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Relling and Evans, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hindupur et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeoworld
ISSN (print)1871-174X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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