How to format your references using the Palaeoworld citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeoworld. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goonatilake, S., 2000. Many paths to enlightenment. Nature 405, 399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Das, R.M., Storey, K.G., 2014. Apical abscission alters cell polarity and dismantles the primary cilium during neurogenesis. Science 343, 200–204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van der Burg, E., Cass, J., Alais, D., 2014. Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter. Sci. Rep. 4, 5098.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zaslavskaia, L.A., Lippmeier, J.C., Shih, C., Ehrhardt, D., Grossman, A.R., Apt, K.E., 2001. Trophic conversion of an obligate photoautotrophic organism through metabolic engineering. Science 292, 2073–2075.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, M.J., Jr., 2010. Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cristofaro, E.D., Wright, M. (Eds.), 2013. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 13th International Symposium, PETS 2013, Bloomington, IN, USA, July 10-12, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Haines, A.J., Dimitrova, L.L., Wallace, L.M., Williams, C.A., 2015. 1-Dimensional Synthetic Examples, in: Dimitrova, L.L., Wallace, L.M., Williams, C.A. (Eds.), Enhanced Surface Imaging of Crustal Deformation: Obtaining Tectonic Force Fields Using GPS Data, SpringerBriefs in Earth Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeoworld.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Wolves Hunt Less When Living Alongside Bears [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Federal Research Grants: Opportunities Remain for Agencies to Streamline Administrative Requirements (No. GAO-16-573). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quackenbush, C.M., 2010. The Imaginal Stone: Stories of self and world (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Virtual Target Previews Fall. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goonatilake, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Das and Storey, 2014; Goonatilake, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Das and Storey, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zaslavskaia et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeoworld
ISSN (print)1871-174X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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