How to format your references using the Palaeoworld citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeoworld. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Munro, M., 2015. The hijacked brain. Nature 522, S46-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Derry, L.A., Murray, R.W., 2004. Geochemistry. Continental margins and the sulfur cycle. Science 303, 1981–1982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagashima, K., Krot, A.N., Yurimoto, H., 2004. Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites. Nature 428, 921–924.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hou, L., Pan, X., Guo, Q., Liu, J.-G., 2014. Memory effect of the online user preference. Sci. Rep. 4, 6560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazovsky, L.G., Cheng, N., Shaw, W.-T., Gutierrez, D., Wong, S.-W., 2011. Broadband Optical Access Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fuschi, P., Pisano, A.A., Weichert, D. (Eds.), 2015. Direct Methods for Limit and Shakedown Analysis of Structures: Advanced Computational Algorithms and Material Modelling. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakhu, R.S., Pelton, J.N., 2014. Licensing, Registration, and Frequency Use Regulation, in: Pelton, J.N. (Ed.), Small Satellites and Their Regulation, SpringerBriefs in Space Development. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeoworld.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Shortlist Finalists Have Been Announced for Sony World Photography Awards [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. ADP Systems: SSA Efforts in Implementing Its Field Office Modernization (No. IMTEC-89-45). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradnan, D.M., 2015. Cherelle Wilt in Theobroma cacao (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2009. From Educators, Caution on Parent Fund-Raisers and Foundations. New York Times LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Munro, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Derry and Murray, 2004; Munro, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Derry and Murray, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeoworld
ISSN (print)1871-174X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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