How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jarrold MF. The smallest fullerene. Nature. 2000;407:26–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zindl CL, Chaplin DD. Immunology. Tumor immune evasion. Science. 2010;328:697–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Panday V, Tiest WMB, Kappers AML. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3856.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. You L, Cox RS 3rd, Weiss R, Arnold FH. Programmed population control by cell-cell communication and regulated killing. Nature. 2004;428:868–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hahn GJ, Doganaksoy N. A Career in Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Clévy C, Rakotondrabe M, Chaillet N, editors. Signal Measurement and Estimation Techniques for Micro and Nanotechnology. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yang C, Ma H, Fu M. Object Detection and Tracking. In: Ma H, Fu M, editors. Advanced Technologies in Modern Robotic Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 97–156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Liberia Hit with More Ebola Cases as Virus Resurfaces. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Drug Testing Programs Could Better Identify Illegal Drug Users and Keep Them off the Road. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 May. Report No.: GAO-08-600.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Li L. Internal conflicts through external design: Costuming the contradictions in “The Love Song of J. Robert Oppenheimer” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM. A Fox News Host Criticizes Trump, and Some Viewers Bristle. New York Times. 2017 Aug 16;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Oncology
AbbreviationCurr. Treat. Options Oncol.
ISSN (print)1527-2729
ISSN (online)1534-6277
Pharmacology (medical)

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