How to format your references using the Current Treatment Options in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Treatment Options in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Saunders J. Physics. A glassy state of supersolid helium. Science. 2009;324:601–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Festing MF, Fisher EM. Mighty mice. Nature. 2000;404:815.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sword GA, Lorch PD, Gwynne DT. Insect behaviour: migratory bands give crickets protection. Nature. 2005;433:703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Celliers PM, Millot M, Brygoo S, McWilliams RS, Fratanduono DE, Rygg JR, et al. Insulator-metal transition in dense fluid deuterium. Science. 2018;361:677–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Casadella V, Liu Z, Uzunidis D. Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Bacha S. Power Electronic Converters Modeling and Control: with Case Studies. Munteanu I, Bratcu AI, editors. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Köbler U, Hoser A. Universality. In: Hoser A, editor. Renormalization Group Theory: Impact on Experimental Magnetism. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Treatment Options in Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Hubble Checks Out Stunning Spiral Galaxy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. D.C. Nonappropriated Revenue. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: AIMD-94-71R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Knehans A. As you like it: The road to design [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Marx L. A Love of Adventure Leads to Love Near Home. New York Times. 2017 Jun 2;ST11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Treatment Options in Oncology
AbbreviationCurr. Treat. Options Oncol.
ISSN (print)1527-2729
ISSN (online)1534-6277
Pharmacology (medical)

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