How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmitz, O. J. (2008). Effects of predator hunting mode on grassland ecosystem function. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5865), 952–954.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dove, W., & Susman, M. (2012). Retrospective. James F. Crow (1916-2012). Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6070), 812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoehler, T. M., Bebout, B. M., & Des Marais, D. J. (2001). The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth. Nature, 412(6844), 324–327.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ahmed, M. F., Ahuja, S., Alauddin, M., Hug, S. J., Lloyd, J. R., Pfaff, A., Pichler, T., Saltikov, C., Stute, M., & van Geen, A. (2006). Epidemiology. Ensuring safe drinking water in Bangladesh. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5806), 1687–1688.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saadoun, A. P. (2012). Esthetic Soft Tissue Management of Teeth and Implants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Sugi, H. (Ed.). (2005). Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction: Fifty Years of Research (Vol. 565). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ebner, B. T., & Chinnaiyan, K. M. (2015). Imaging of Coronary Artery Anomalies. In A. E. Abbas (Ed.), Interventional Cardiology Imaging: An Essential Guide (pp. 75–93). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, November 3). Watch What Happens When You Fire A Ball At Sixty MPH Out Of A Truck Traveling Sixty MPH In The Opposite Direction. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Telecommunications: Changes in Selected Broadcast and Cable Television Reporting Requirements (RCED-89-24). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arzaga, C. B. (2012). Homeless shelter program for the elderly in Los Angeles, California: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, February 26). ‘Friday File’: The Whitney’s 1966 Debut (Now the Met Breuer). New York Times, C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmitz, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Dove & Susman, 2012; Schmitz, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dove & Susman, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Hoehler et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ahmed et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Occup. Ther.
ISSN (print)1569-1861
ScopeOccupational Therapy

Other styles