How to format your references using the Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wigley TML. The climate change commitment. Science. 2005 Mar;307(5716):1766–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharon I, Banfield JF. Microbiology. Genomes from metagenomics. Science. 2013 Nov;342(6162):1057–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liang Y, Wu D, Fu R. Carbon microfibers with hierarchical porous structure from electrospun fiber-like natural biopolymer. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan;3:1119.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen J, Zhao D, Li C, Xu F, Lei W, Sun L, et al. All solution-processed stable white quantum dot light-emitting diodes with hybrid ZnO@TiO₂ as blue emitters. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb;4:4085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tannenbaum LV. Alternative Ecological Risk Assessment. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Schalley CA, Vögtle F, Dötz KH, editors. Templates in Chemistry II: -/-. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Prauzek M, Hlavica J, Michalikova M. Automatic Fuzzy Classification System for Metabolic Types Detection. In: Abraham A, Jiang XH, Snášel V, Pan J-S, editors. Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications: Proceedings of the Second Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications, ECC 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Dr Henry Heimlich, Inventor Of The Heimlich Maneuver, Dies At 96 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Dec [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s and NASA’s Research and Development Plans for Noise Reduction Are Aligned but the Prospects of Achieving Noise Reduction Goals Are Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shroff N. Efficient sensing, summarization and classification of videos. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. The New Bork Battle. New York Times. 2016 Mar;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Nephrology and Urology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Nephrol. Urol.
ISSN (online)1664-5510

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