How to format your references using the Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greely HT. Get ready for the flood of fetal gene screening. Nature. 2011 Jan;469(7330):289–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith MP, Harper DAT. Earth science. Causes of the Cambrian explosion. Science. 2013 Sep;341(6152):1355–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Titus TN, Kieffer HH, Christensen PR. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars. Science. 2003 Feb;299(5609):1048–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hyde WT, Crowley TJ, Baum SK, Peltier WR. Neoproterozoic “snowball Earth” simulations with a coupled climate/ice-sheet model. Nature. 2000 May;405(6785):425–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanders S. Seizures in Dogs and Cats. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Goldade VA. Plastics for Corrosion Inhibition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Dias JS, Ortiz R. Vegetable Breeding Industry and Property Rights. In: Lichtfouse E, editor. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 17. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 121–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology.

Blog post
Hale T. Two Oddly Adorable Baby Flamingos Are Welcomed To Columbus Zoo [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jul [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Federal and State Efforts to Support Declining Intercity Bus Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen HT. The Songs of Lori Laitman: An Analysis of Sunflowers and Early Snow. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. U.S. to Face Honduras With a Depleted Roster. New York Times. 2017 Mar;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Nephrology and Urology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Nephrol. Urol.
ISSN (online)1664-5510

Other styles