How to format your references using the Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sun L: Inorganic chemistry. A closer mimic of the oxygen evolution complex of photosystem II. Science 2015;348:635–636.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowenstein TK, Demicco RV: Elevated Eocene atmospheric CO2 and its subsequent decline. Science 2006;313:1928.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang B, Xu S, Wu L: Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms. Nature 2012;489:E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xuan C, Li H, Zhao J-X, Wang H-W, Wang Y, Ning C-P, et al.: Association between MTHFR polymorphisms and congenital heart disease: a meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls. Sci Rep 2014;4:7311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees H: Supply Chain Management in the Drug Industry. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
van Benthem J, Ghosh S, Verbrugge R (eds): Models of Strategic Reasoning: Logics, Games, and Communities. 1st ed. 2015 Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Jackson IL, Rubin P, Hadley C, Vujaskovic Z: Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Induced Injury; in Rubin P, Constine LS, Marks LB (eds): ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment: Volume 1: General Concepts and Specific Precepts. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014, pp 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Tornado-Like Winds May Have Scoured The Surface Of Mars. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts JE: Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D: Who’s the Greatest of Them All? New York Times 1993;724.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Nephrology and Urology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Nephrol. Urol.
ISSN (online)1664-5510

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