How to format your references using the Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham-Rowe D. Overview: Multiple lines of attack. Nature. 2011 Dec;480(7377):S34-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reverter D, Lima CD. Insights into E3 ligase activity revealed by a SUMO-RanGAP1-Ubc9-Nup358 complex. Nature. 2005 Jun;435(7042):687–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng Y, Tanaka S, Poon C-S. Comment on “Universality in the evolution of orientation columns in the visual cortex.” Science. 2012 Apr;336(6080):413; author reply 413.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zha S, Guo C, Boboila C, Oksenych V, Cheng H-L, Zhang Y, et al. ATM damage response and XLF repair factor are functionally redundant in joining DNA breaks. Nature. 2011 Jan;469(7329):250–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng R. Drugs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Shultz L, Kajner T, editors. Engaged Scholarship: The Politics of Engagement and Disengagement. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Kanemaru S-I. Regeneration of the Tympanic Membrane. In: Ito J, editor. Regenerative Medicine in Otolaryngology. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015; pp 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Life Could Be Possible On Sideways Exoplanet If It Has Oceans [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Dec [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Practitioner Data Bank: Major Improvements Are Needed to Enhance Data Bank’s Reliability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson NR. Subspecies composition, genetic variation and structure of Largemouth Bass in Puerto Rico reservoirs. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Doran M. A Trump Plan for the Middle East? New York Times. 2017 May;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Nephrology and Urology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Nephrol. Urol.
ISSN (online)1664-5510

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