How to format your references using the HKIE Transactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HKIE Transactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haigh JD. Climate variability and the influence of the Sun. Science. 2001;294:2109–2111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao X, Jiang L. Biophysics: water-repellent legs of water striders. Nature. 2004;432:36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho Y, Lee JB, Hong J. Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:4078.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ahel I, Ahel D, Matsusaka T, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose)-binding zinc finger motifs in DNA repair/checkpoint proteins. Nature. 2008;451:81–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doyle JF. Modern Experimental Stress Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Laron Z, Kopchick J, editors. Laron Syndrome - From Man to Mouse: Lessons from Clinical and Experimental Experience. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Legnaioli S, Lorenzetti G, Pardini L, et al. Double and Multiple Pulse LIBS Techniques. In: Musazzi S, Perini U, editors. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 117–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HKIE Transactions.

Blog post
Luntz S. Koalas Listed As Vulnerable Throughout Queensland. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for a National Weather Modification Reseach Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974. Report No.: B-133202. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krau CF. A case study of congregational design and implementation of adult Christian education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Celebrating South Africa and a Job Done Well. New York Times. 2010 Jul 11;SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHKIE Transactions
ISSN (print)1023-697X
ISSN (online)2326-3733
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles