How to format your references using the HKIE Transactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HKIE Transactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller KL. Innate immunity. Recognizing the first responders. Introduction. Science. 2010;327:283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Camerer CF, Fehr E. When does “economic man” dominate social behavior? Science. 2006;311:47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weymouth AJ, Hofmann T, Giessibl FJ. Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy. Science. 2014;343:1120–1122.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gros J, Manceau M, Thomé V, et al. A common somitic origin for embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells. Nature. 2005;435:954–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bi J. Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Lin P-CK. Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks. Khatri SP, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Tobias JD. Tolerance, Physical Dependency, and Withdrawal. In: Wheeler DS, Wong HR, Shanley TP, editors. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: Volume 4: Peri-operative Care of the Critically Ill or Injured Child. London: Springer; 2014. p. 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HKIE Transactions.

Blog post
Taub B. Magic Mushrooms Help Treat Existential Anxiety In Cancer Patients. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Compensatory Education: Chapter 1’s Comparability of Services Provision. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987. Report No.: HRD-87-102. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson K. An Introduction to the Cox Proportional Hazards Model and Its Applications to Survival Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L. Optimism in the Mormon Heartland. New York Times. 2009 May 13;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHKIE Transactions
ISSN (print)1023-697X
ISSN (online)2326-3733
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles