How to format your references using the HKIE Transactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HKIE Transactions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ioannidis JPA. More time for research: fund people not projects. Nature. 2011;477:529–531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matthias S, Müller F. Asymmetric pores in a silicon membrane acting as massively parallel brownian ratchets. Nature. 2003;424:53–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zerbino DR, Paten B, Haussler D. Integrating genomes. Science. 2012;336:179–182.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Catherall AT, Eaves L, King PJ, et al. Magnetic levitation: Floating gold in cryogenic oxygen. Nature. 2003;422:579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sewell G. The Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Malvey D. mHealth: Transforming Healthcare. Slovensky DJ, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Raffensperger JF. The Economic Value of Dietary Supplements. In: Gerald JK, Watson RR, Preedy VR, editors. Nutrients, Dietary Supplements, and Nutriceuticals: Cost Analysis Versus Clinical Benefits. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2011. p. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HKIE Transactions.

Blog post
Andrew E. Could T. Rex Really Only See You If You Moved? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service, and Safety at Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Communities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996. Report No.: RCED-96-79. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler-Roberts J. Fashioning distinction: construction of identity through dress and photography in nineteenth-century Paris [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mashal M. Head of ISIS Branch in Afghanistan Killed in April Raid. New York Times. 2017 May 7;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHKIE Transactions
ISSN (print)1023-697X
ISSN (online)2326-3733
ScopeGeneral Engineering

Other styles