How to format your references using the The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics (JMD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Serrano M. Cancer: final act of senescence. Nature, 2011, 479:481–2
A journal article with 2 authors
Phadnis N, Orr HA. A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids. Science, 2009, 323:376–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Fowler JH, Johnson T, Smirnov O. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment. Nature, 2005, 433:1 p following 32; discussion following 32
A journal article with 36 or more authors
Zhu X, Saito S, Kemp A, Kakuyanagi K, Karimoto S-I, Nakano H, Munro WJ, Tokura Y, Everitt MS, Nemoto K, Kasu M, Mizuochi N, Semba K. Coherent coupling of a superconducting flux qubit to an electron spin ensemble in diamond. Nature, 2011, 478:221–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen S. Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005
An edited book
Kibbe MR, LeMaire SA, editors. Success in Academic Surgery: Basic Science. London, Springer, 2014
A chapter in an edited book
Ziegler A. Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction. Edited by Ziegler A, Graafsma H, Zhang XF and Frenken JWM. In-situ Materials Characterization: Across Spatial and Temporal Scales, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014, pp. 111–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

Blog post
Hale T. Sheep Get High On Valium To Help Scientists Understand Anxiety In Farm Animals. IFLScience, 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford C. The education of Dr. Khalil Totah. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Barnard A. In the Middle East, Another Conflict: What to Make of the Election of Trump. New York Times, 2016:P3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Molecular Diagnostics
AbbreviationJ. Mol. Diagn.
ISSN (print)1525-1578
ISSN (online)1943-7811
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles