How to format your references using the Hippocampus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hippocampus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. 2000. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Harbinger of a Litigious Future? Science 290:1076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillpot SR, Sinnott SB. 2009. Materials science. Simulating multifunctional structures. Science 325:1634–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nykypanchuk D, Strey HH, Hoagland DA. 2002. Brownian motion of DNA confined within a two-dimensional array. Science 297:987–990.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Mangan PR, Harrington LE, O’Quinn DB, Helms WS, Bullard DC, Elson CO, Hatton RD, Wahl SM, Schoeb TR, Weaver CT. 2006. Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage. Nature 441:231–234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holsclaw G. 2016. Transcending Subjects. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pignataro M, Gioncu V eds. 2005. Phenomenological and Mathematical Modelling of Structural Instabilities. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Evans MA, Saint-Aubin J. 2010. An Eye for Print: Child and Adult Attention to Print During Shared Book Reading. In: Aram D, Korat O, editors. Literacy Development and Enhancement Across Orthographies and Cultures. Literacy Studies. Boston, MA: Springer US. p 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hippocampus.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016. Fair Play? How ‘Smart Drugs’ Are Making Workplaces More Competitive. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Coordination of Government Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schey KA. 2010. A paradigm for historical and biographical research in support of living history programming at Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. 2017. How United Pulled Out Of Its Public Nose Dive. New York Times:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler, 2000; Phillpot and Sinnott, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phillpot and Sinnott, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Mangan et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHippocampus
ISSN (print)1050-9631
ISSN (online)1098-1063
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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