How to format your references using the Hippocampus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hippocampus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
John JL. 2009. The future of saving our past. Nature 459:775–776.
A journal article with 2 authors
Land MF, Osorio D. 2014. Physiology. Extraordinary color vision. Science 343:381–382.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capozza R, Barel I, Urbakh M. 2013. Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale. Sci Rep 3:1896.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Singh SK, Kagalwala MN, Parker-Thornburg J, Adams H, Majumder S. 2008. REST maintains self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Nature 453:223–227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens H. 2012. Applied Building Physics. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Hauser B ed. 2013. Yoga Traveling: Bodily Practice in Transcultural Perspective. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Trindade LA, Wang H, Blackburn W, Rooney N. 2013. An Enhanced Semantic Tree Kernel for Sentiment Polarity Classification. In: Gelbukh A, editor. Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 14th International Conference, CICLing 2013, Samos, Greece, March 24-30, 2013, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 50–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hippocampus.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2017. Five Common Myths About The Ageing Brain And Body. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Management Guidelines for Cost Accounting and Cost Control for ADP Systems Design and Development Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moran JA. 2009. Investigating the circumstellar environments of young stars with the PROMPT polarimeter.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. 2010. Saving the World. Smelling Good, Too. New York Times:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (John, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (John, 2009; Land and Osorio, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Land and Osorio, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Singh et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHippocampus
ISSN (print)1050-9631
ISSN (online)1098-1063
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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