How to format your references using the Hippocampus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hippocampus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. 2004. Boosting biotech in Finland. Nature 431:1020–1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor PG, Townsend AR. 2010. Stoichiometric control of organic carbon-nitrate relationships from soils to the sea. Nature 464:1178–1181.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolin JA, Smith G, Vargo A. 2013. Oversimplifying quantum factoring. Nature 499:163–165.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Cao Y, Wang N, Tian H, Guo J, Wei Y, Chen H, Miao Y, Zou W, Pan K, He Y, Cao H, Ke Y, Xu M, Wang Y, Yang M, Du K, Fu Z, Kong D, Dai D, Jin Y, Li G, Li H, Peng Q, Wang J, Huang W. 2018. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562:249–253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stidwill D, Fletcher R. 2010. Normal Binocular Vision. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tytler R, Prain V, Hubber P, Waldrip B eds. 2013. Constructing Representations to Learn in Science. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Skowron P, Rzadca K. 2014. Fair Share Is Not Enough: Measuring Fairness in Scheduling with Cooperative Game Theory. In: Wyrzykowski R, Dongarra J, Karczewski K, Waśniewski J, editors. Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics: 10th International Conference, PPAM 2013, Warsaw, Poland, September 8-11, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 38–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hippocampus.

Blog post
Hale T. 2015. Check Out This Incredible Visualization Of Over 500 Exoplanets. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. James Webb Space Telescope: Project on Track but May Benefit from Improved Contractor Data to Better Understand Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston BP. 2014. An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. 2015. A Show Meant to Provoke Double Takes. New York Times:WE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Taylor and Townsend, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Townsend, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHippocampus
ISSN (print)1050-9631
ISSN (online)1098-1063
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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