How to format your references using the Hippocampus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hippocampus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon K. 2014. Orthopaedics: Joint effort. Nature 515:S170-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bechler ME, ffrench-Constant C. 2014. Neuroscience. A new wrap for neuronal activity? Science 344:480–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duplessy JC, Roche DM, Kageyama M. 2007. The deep ocean during the last interglacial period. Science 316:89–91.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Dietrich LEP, Teal TK, Price-Whelan A, Newman DK. 2008. Redox-active antibiotics control gene expression and community behavior in divergent bacteria. Science 321:1203–1206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grotewold E, Chappell J, Kellogg EA. 2015. Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leitner M ed. 2013. Crime Modeling and Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rybacki KS, Kump LR, Hanski EJ, Melezhik VA. 2013. 7.4 An Apparent Oxidation of the Upper Mantle versus Regional Deep Oxidation of Terrestrial Surfaces in the Fennoscandian Shield. In: Melezhik VA, Prave AR, Hanski EJ, Fallick AE, Lepland A, Kump LR, Strauss H, editors. Reading the Archive of Earth’s Oxygenation: Volume 3: Global Events and the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Early Earth Project. Frontiers in Earth Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 1151–1167.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hippocampus.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017. Scientists Create A Mind-Controlled Turtle. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Efforts to Exchange Health Data Could Benefit from Improved Planning and Project Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crooks RH. 2012. Analysis Of The XY Spin 1/2 Model In Staggered Field And Networks Of D-Wave Josephson Junctions.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD. 2017. President Questions Clinton Ties To Russia. New York Times:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gammon, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bechler and ffrench-Constant, 2014; Gammon, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bechler and ffrench-Constant, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dietrich et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHippocampus
ISSN (print)1050-9631
ISSN (online)1098-1063
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience

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