How to format your references using the Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brouns, S. J. J. (2012). Molecular biology. A Swiss army knife of immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6096), 808–809.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campins, H., & Comfort, C. M. (2014). Solar system: Evaporating asteroid. Nature, 505(7484), 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jacobson, T., Liberati, S., & Mattingly, D. (2003). A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity. Nature, 424(6952), 1019–1021.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, J., Xia, J., Lei, W., & Wang, B.-P. (2013). Advanced understanding of stickiness on superhydrophobic surfaces. Scientific reports, 3, 3268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Savaux, V., & Louët, Y. (2014). MMSE-Based Algorithm for Joint Signal Detection, Channel and Noise Variance Estimation for OFDM Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Perera, A. H., Drew, C. A., & Johnson, C. J. (Eds.). (2012). Expert Knowledge and Its Application in Landscape Ecology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chua, A. Y. K., & Banerjee, S. (2015). Analyzing Users’ Trust for Online Health Rumors. In R. B. Allen, J. Hunter, & M. L. Zeng (Eds.), Digital Libraries: Providing Quality Information: 17th International Conference on Asia-Pacific Digital Libraries, ICADL 2015, Seoul, Korea, December 9-12, 2015. Proceedings (pp. 33–38). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 17). What’s The Real Deal About The Atacama “Alien”? IFLScience. IFLScience.’s-real-deal-about-atacama-alien/. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Will Continue to Have Difficulty Controlling Its Costs and Meeting Capital Needs (No. RCED-00-138). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sullivan, T. J. (2017). Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lowry, M. P. (2014, October 17). Fire Starter. New York Times, p. MM54.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brouns 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Brouns 2012; Campins and Comfort 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campins and Comfort 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher Education
AbbreviationHigh. Educ.
ISSN (print)0018-1560
ISSN (online)1573-174X

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