How to format your references using the Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sparks, S. (2007). Use the calm between the storms. Nature, 450(7168), 354.
A journal article with 2 authors
van der Marel, D., & Sawatzky, G. A. (2014). Physics. An optical twist for triplet superconductors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6193), 138–139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., & Stern, P. C. (2003). The struggle to govern the commons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5652), 1907–1912.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Emison, E. S., McCallion, A. S., Kashuk, C. S., Bush, R. T., Grice, E., Lin, S., et al. (2005). A common sex-dependent mutation in a RET enhancer underlies Hirschsprung disease risk. Nature, 434(7035), 857–863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
James, L. (2014). Sustainability Footprints in SMEs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Misery, L., & Ständer, S. (Eds.). (2010). Pruritus. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mio, C. (2013). Materiality and Assurance: Building the Link. In C. Busco, M. L. Frigo, A. Riccaboni, & P. Quattrone (Eds.), Integrated Reporting: Concepts and Cases that Redefine Corporate Accountability (pp. 79–94). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, November 10). What Are All The Elements In The Periodic Table Actually Used For? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Does DOD Need a Dedicated System of High Altitude Satellites To Meet Its Strategic Communications Requirements for the Next Decade? (No. LCD-80-59). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari, S. (2017). The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, October 14). Santander to Pay $6.4 Million to Islanders in Puerto Rico Bond Settlement. New York Times, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sparks 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sparks 2007; van der Marel and Sawatzky 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van der Marel and Sawatzky 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Emison et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher Education
AbbreviationHigh. Educ.
ISSN (print)0018-1560
ISSN (online)1573-174X

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