How to format your references using the Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knutson, B. (2004). Behavior. Sweet revenge? Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5688), 1246–1247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulcahy, N. J., & Call, J. (2006). Apes save tools for future use. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1038–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atwood, J. L., Barbour, L. J., & Jerga, A. (2002). Storage of methane and freon by interstitial van der Waals confinement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5577), 2367–2369.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lau, N. C., Lim, L. P., Weinstein, E. G., & Bartel, D. P. (2001). An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5543), 858–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming, P., & Lee, R. (2016). Orthodontic Functional Appliances. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Huynh, V.-N., Kreinovich, V., Sriboonchitta, S., & Suriya, K. (Eds.). (2015). Econometrics of Risk (Vol. 583). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ollmar, S., Nicander, I., Åberg, P., & Birgersson, U. (2007). Evolution of a Diagnostic Decision Support Tool Based on Electrical Impedance. In H. Scharfetter & R. Merwa (Eds.), 13th International Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography: ICEBI 2007, August 29th - September 2nd 2007, Graz, Austria (pp. 4–7). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, July 8). Triple Simultaneous Lightning Strike. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Review of the Battlefield Exploitation and Target Acquisition System (No. LCD-80-38). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morton, W. G. (2015). Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, November 26). That Distinctive New-Park Odor Turns Out to Be Leaking Sewage. New York Times, p. 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knutson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Knutson 2004; Mulcahy and Call 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mulcahy and Call 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lau et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher Education
AbbreviationHigh. Educ.
ISSN (print)0018-1560
ISSN (online)1573-174X

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