How to format your references using the Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon, K. (2013). Drugs: Blood battles. Nature, 493(7434), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo, M.-T., & Lee, W.-C. (2014). Detecting a weak association by testing its multiple perturbations: a data mining approach. Scientific reports, 4, 5081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lai, C. S. W., Franke, T. F., & Gan, W.-B. (2012). Opposite effects of fear conditioning and extinction on dendritic spine remodelling. Nature, 483(7387), 87–91.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, J., Sun, Y., Zheng, S., Zhang, X.-S., Zhou, H., & Chen, L. (2013). APG: an Active Protein-Gene network model to quantify regulatory signals in complex biological systems. Scientific reports, 3, 1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, G. G. (2002). Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Sirisuk, P., Morgan, F., El-Ghazawi, T., & Amano, H. (Eds.). (2010). Reconfigurable Computing: Architectures, Tools and Applications: 6th International Symposium, ARC 2010, Bangkok, Thailand, March 17-19, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 5992). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Laouadi, M. A., Mokhati, F., & Seridi-Bouchelaghem, H. (2010). A Novel Formal Specification Approach for Real Time Multi-Agent System Functional Requirements. In J. Dix & C. Witteveen (Eds.), Multiagent System Technologies: 8th German Conference, MATES 2010, Leipzig, Germany, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 15–27). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 25). Warming Seas Will Set Marine Life On The Move, With Some Good News Among The Bad. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill in Oregon (No. 092275). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zohourian, M. (2015). Supply Chain Decision Making Under Demand Uncertainty and the Use of Control Systems: A Correlational Study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seymour, M. (2015, April 24). How About a Nightcap? New York Times, p. BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gammon 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gammon 2013; Lo and Lee 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lo and Lee 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher Education
AbbreviationHigh. Educ.
ISSN (print)0018-1560
ISSN (online)1573-174X

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