How to format your references using the Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hogg, P. J. (2006). Composites in armor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1100–1101.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otto, S. P., & Nuismer, S. L. (2004). Species interactions and the evolution of sex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 1018–1020.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dangl, J. L., Horvath, D. M., & Staskawicz, B. J. (2013). Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6147), 746–751.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, C.-Y., Ho, A., Huang, H.-Y., Juan, H.-F., & Huang, H.-C. (2014). Dissecting the human protein-protein interaction network via phylogenetic decomposition. Scientific reports, 4, 7153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, T. A. (2010). Guide to LEED® 2009 Estimating and Preconstruction Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marti, K., Ermoliev, Y., & Makowski, M. (Eds.). (2010). Coping with Uncertainty: Robust Solutions (Vol. 633). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Correll, N., & Martinoli, A. (2006). System Identification of Self-Organizing Robotic Swarms. In M. Gini & R. Voyles (Eds.), Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems 7 (pp. 31–40). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Higher Education.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, July 12). Here’s How To Get “Pokémon Go” In The UK On IPhone And Android — Even Though It’s Not Out Here Yet. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Offshoring in Six Human Services Programs: Offshoring Occurs in Most States, Primarily in Customer Service and Software Development (No. GAO-06-342). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, A. R. (2013). Computerized physician order entry: An outlook on successful implementation among ambulatory care settings (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, February 2). A Good American. New York Times, p. C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hogg 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hogg 2006; Otto and Nuismer 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Otto and Nuismer 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigher Education
AbbreviationHigh. Educ.
ISSN (print)0018-1560
ISSN (online)1573-174X

Other styles