How to format your references using the Herpetologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Herpetologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parisi, G. 2005. Brownian motion. Nature 433:221.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill, H.S.C., and F.E. Jenner. 2012. The global pattern of trace-element distributions in ocean floor basalts. Nature 491:698–704.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, V.N., N. Kataoka, and G. Dreyfuss. 2001. Role of the nonsense-mediated decay factor hUpf3 in the splicing-dependent exon-exon junction complex. Science 293:1832–1836.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Zhang, D.-S., Z. Chang, Y.-F. Li, … X.-H. Bu. 2013. Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with enhanced stability and high H2/CO2 storage capacities. Sci. Rep. 3:3312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taha, A.-E.M., H.S. Hassanein, and N.A. Ali. 2011. LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kotlarsky, J., I. Oshri, and L.P. Willcocks (eds.). 2014. Governing Sourcing Relationships. A Collection of Studies at the Country, Sector and Firm Level: 8th Global Sourcing Workshop 2014, Val d’Isere, France, March 23-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. 195. Springer International Publishing, Cham. IX, 191 p. 39 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Arroyo, F., J. Castellanos, and V. Mitrana. 2012. Uniform Distributed Pushdown Automata Systems. Pp. 64–75 in Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems: 14th International Workshop, DCFS 2012, Braga, Portugal, July 23-25, 2012. Proceedings (M. Kutrib, N. Moreira, and R. Reis, eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Herpetologica.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. The Next Steps of HIV Treatment. IFLScience. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Transportation Infrastructure: Department of Transportation Highway and Mass Transit Program Reauthorization Proposals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gao, H. 2006. Extracting Key Features for Analysis and Recognition in Computer Vision. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. 2015. Cancer, Scourge of Affluent Nations. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parisi 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Parisi 2005; O’Neill and Jenner 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Neill and Jenner 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHerpetologica
ISSN (print)0018-0831
ISSN (online)1938-5099
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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