How to format your references using the Herpetologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Herpetologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart, I., I. 2000. Mathematics. A gathering of groups. Nature 403:719–720.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fries, M., and A. Steele. 2008. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites. Science 320:91–93.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland, J.N., T. Okuyama, and D.L. DeAngelis. 2006. Comment on “Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance.” Science 313:1887; author reply 1887.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Xie, S., R.D. Pancost, H. Yin, H. Wang, and R.P. Evershed. 2005. Two episodes of microbial change coupled with Permo/Triassic faunal mass extinction. Nature 434:494–497.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. 2005. Continuous Direct-Heat Rotary Dryers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sencar, H.T., and N. Memon (eds.). 2013. Digital Image Forensics: There is More to a Picture than Meets the Eye. Springer, New York, NY. VIII, 372 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Badman, S.V., G. Branduardi-Raymont, M. Galand, S.L.G. Hess, N. Krupp, L. Lamy, H. Melin, and C. Tao. 2016. Auroral Processes at the Giant Planets: Energy Deposition, Emission Mechanisms, Morphology and Spectra. Pp. 99–179 in The Magnetodiscs and Aurorae of Giant Planets (K. Szego, N. Achilleos, C. Arridge, S. Badman, P. Delamere, D. Grodent, M. Galland Kivelson, and P. Louarn, eds.). Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Herpetologica.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2017. Just A Small Number Of Driverless Cars On The Highway Could Slash Traffic Jams. IFLScience. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Aviation: Status of DOT’s Actions to Address the Future of Aviation Advisory Committee’s Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morales, G.A. 2015. Effects of communication and control latency on air traffic controller acceptance of unmanned aircraft operations. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sasse, B. 2017. Put Your Kids to Work. New York Times SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Stewart 2000; Fries and Steele 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fries and Steele 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHerpetologica
ISSN (print)0018-0831
ISSN (online)1938-5099
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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