How to format your references using the Herpetologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Herpetologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, L. 2003. Amersham Prize winner. Expanding the genetic code. Science 302:584–585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papke, R.T., and J.P. Gogarten. 2012. Ecology. How bacterial lineages emerge. Science 336:45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCulloh, K.A., J.S. Sperry, and F.R. Adler. 2003. Water transport in plants obeys Murray’s law. Nature 421:939–942.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Mueller, S.N., K.A. Hosiawa-Meagher, B.T. Konieczny, B.M. Sullivan, M.F. Bachmann, R.M. Locksley, R. Ahmed, and M. Matloubian. 2007. Regulation of homeostatic chemokine expression and cell trafficking during immune responses. Science 317:670–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinsen, U. 2017. Kostenrechnung in der Bauwirtschaft. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Indulska, J., and K. Raymond (eds.). 2007. Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 7th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2007, Paphos, Cyprus, June 6-8, 2007. Proceedings. 4531. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XII, 340 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Shihabi, L., R.W. Wysocki, and D.S. Ruch. 2015. Management of Type 1A TFCC Tears. Pp. 59–65 in Wrist and Elbow Arthroscopy: A Practical Surgical Guide to Techniques (W.B. Geissler, ed.). Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Herpetologica.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. NASA Missions May Re-Elevate Pluto And Ceres From Dwarf Planets To Full-On Planet Status. IFLScience. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. High Speed Rail: Learning From Service Start-ups, Prospects for Increased Industry Investment, and Federal Oversight Plans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ehigiator, O.J. 2015. A Closed Loop Control System for Pressure and Flow Detection Using a Vibrating String Transducer. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davidson, A. 2013. Who Is Betting On Obamacare? New York Times MM36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Wang 2003; Papke and Gogarten 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papke and Gogarten 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Mueller et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleHerpetologica
ISSN (print)0018-0831
ISSN (online)1938-5099
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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