How to format your references using the Digestive Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Burke D. Time for voices to be raised. Nature. 2000 Jun;405(6786):509.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Horne-Badovinac S, Munro E. Developmental biology. Tubular transformations. Science. 2011 Jul;333(6040):294–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Eccleston A, Cesari F, Skipper M. Transcription and epigenetics. Nature. 2013 Oct;502(7472):461.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
He L, Xue L, Xu J, McNeil BD, Bai L, Melicoff E, et al. Compound vesicle fusion increases quantal size and potentiates synaptic transmission. Nature. 2009 May;459(7243):93–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Wesche R. Physical Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1
Jones DSJS, Pujadó PR, editors. Handbook of Petroleum Processing. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Zerbe I, Gajovic-Eichelmann N. Lipidic Microbubble Targeting of Surface Proteins Using an in Vitro System. In: Paradossi G, Pellegretti P, Trucco A, editors. Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Targeting and Processing Methods for Theranostics. Milano: Springer; 2010; pp 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Diseases.

Blog post
1
Luntz S. Stars Are Dying Puzzlingly Young [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/stars-are-dying-puzzlingly-young-0/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: The Congress Faces Critical Decisions About the Role of and Funding for Intercity Passenger Rail Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Hoang TT. Acoustic and Image Vehicle Classification System. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kitfield J. The Lingering Stench of Torture. New York Times. 2017 Jan;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Diseases
AbbreviationDig. Dis.
ISSN (print)0257-2753
ISSN (online)1421-9875
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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