How to format your references using the Digestive Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Havlin S. Epidemiology. Phone infections. Science. 2009 May;324(5930):1023–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Paterson WS, Reeh N. Thinning of the ice sheet in northwest Greenland over the past forty years. Nature. 2001 Nov;414(6859):60–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Borgia G, Coyle BJ, Keagy J. Comment on “Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds.” Science. 2012 Jul;337(6092):292; author reply 292.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Izumi Y, Xu L, di Tomaso E, Fukumura D, Jain RK. Tumour biology: herceptin acts as an anti-angiogenic cocktail. Nature. 2002 Mar;416(6878):279–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Vincoli JW. Basic Guide to System Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1
Rossberg J. Pro Scalable .NET 2.0 Application Designs. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Dolan EM, Bauer JW, Katras MJ. Making Rural Employment Work. In: Bauer JW, Dolan EM, editors. Rural Families and Work: Context and Problems. New York, NY: Springer; 2011; pp 55–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Diseases.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Is Just One Symptom Of Ecosystem Collapse Across Australia [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/great-barrier-reef-bleaching-just-one-symptom-ecosystem-collapse-across-australia/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Selected Agency Plans for Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Schey KA. A paradigm for historical and biographical research in support of living history programming at Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Sisario B. The Chainsmokers Bump Drake Off No. 1. New York Times. 2017 Apr;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Diseases
AbbreviationDig. Dis.
ISSN (print)0257-2753
ISSN (online)1421-9875
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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