How to format your references using the Digestive Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta L: Protein-protein interactions: Interactome under construction. Nature 2010;468:851–854.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brédas J-L, Silbey R: Chemistry. Excitons surf along conjugated polymer chains. Science 2009;323:348–349.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Horn RC, Watts HE, Holekamp KE: Do female hyaenas choose mates based on tenure? Nature 2008;454:E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Prins LJ, De Jong F, Timmerman P, Reinhoudt DN: An enantiomerically pure hydrogen-bonded assembly. Nature 2000;408:181–184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells R: Global Credit Management. Oxford, UK, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004.
An edited book
Baharvand H, Aghdami N (eds): Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy. Totowa, NJ, Humana Press, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Grimaldi L, Bontron G, Balayn P: Hydraulic Modelling for Rhône River Operation; in Gourbesville P, Cunge J, Caignaert G (eds): Advances in Hydroinformatics: SIMHYDRO 2012 – New Frontiers of Simulation. Singapore, Springer, 2014, pp 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew D: How To Make A Hurricane On A Bubble. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroder GL: A quantitative study of critical thinking skills in bachelors of science nursing program students 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Widdicombe B: Glamour? There’s an App for That. New York Times 2017;ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Diseases
AbbreviationDig. Dis.
ISSN (print)0257-2753
ISSN (online)1421-9875
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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