How to format your references using the Digestive Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Kim SK. Cell biology. Proteins that promote long life. Science. 2007 Aug;317(5838):603–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Mulch A, Chamberlain CP. Earth science: the rise and growth of Tibet. Nature. 2006 Feb;439(7077):670–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Weil D, Graham M, Fung A. Science and regulation. Targeting transparency. Science. 2013 Jun;340(6139):1410–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Lin J-M, Kilman VL, Keegan K, Paddock B, Emery-Le M, Rosbash M, et al. A role for casein kinase 2alpha in the Drosophila circadian clock. Nature. 2002;420(6917):816–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Hey E. Neonatal Formulary 6. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1
Dovey J. Beginning Objective-C. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Nehm RH, Hickman CS. Assessing the Effects of Taphonomic Processes on Palaeobiological Patterns using Turbinid Gastropod Shells and Opercula. In: Nehm RH, Budd AF, editors. Evolutionary Stasis and Change in the Dominican Republic Neogene. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008; pp 63–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive Diseases.

Blog post
1
Hale T. Super Rare Wildcat Spotted In The Wild [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Mar [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/super-rare-wildcat-spotted-in-the-wild/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Improved Budgeting Could Help FAA Better Determine Future Operations and Maintenance Priorities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Coleman KM. Parent involvement in the promotion of healthy outcomes for young girls: A grant writing project. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Wagner J. DeGrom Goes Where No Mets Starter Has This Year: The 9th Inning. New York Times. 2017 May;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive Diseases
AbbreviationDig. Dis.
ISSN (print)0257-2753
ISSN (online)1421-9875
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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