How to format your references using the Applied and Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan M. 2009. Astronomy. Re-viewing an old comet reservoir. Science 325:1211–1212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pera M, Trounson A. 2013. Cloning debate: Stem-cell researchers must stay engaged. Nature 498:159–161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Letinic K, Zoncu R, Rakic P. 2002. Origin of GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex. Nature 417:645–649.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Giraldo O, Brock SL, Marquez M, Suib SL, Hillhouse H, Tsapatsis M. 2000. Spontaneous formation of inorganic helices. Nature 405:38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell LCR, Hodgetts CTJ, Mahoney CPF, Castle N. 2010. Disaster Rules. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
2010. Diabetes and the Brain. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Tang H-G, Peng T-Y. 2013. Auditor Industry Specialization, Analysts Following and Financing Constrains, p. 35–44. In Qi, E, Shen, J, Dou, R (eds.), The 19th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management: Engineering Economics Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Pistol Shrimp Claw In Slow Motion. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Important Progress Made, Yet Much Work Remains to Ensure Delivery of Critical Services. T-AIMD-99-266. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyer MA. 2014. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tavernise S, Kovaleski SF, Turkewitz J. 2017. ‘I Wish I Could Tell You He Was a Miserable Bastard.’ New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied and Environmental Microbiology
AbbreviationAppl. Environ. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0099-2240
ISSN (online)1098-5336
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles