How to format your references using the Applied and Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen J. 2009. Physics. Fast electrons tie quantum knots. Science 323:888–890.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishimura M, Somerville S. 2002. Plant biology. Resisting attack. Science 295:2032–2033.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brockmann D, Hufnagel L, Geisel T. 2006. The scaling laws of human travel. Nature 439:462–465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosenfeld N, Young JW, Alon U, Swain PS, Elowitz MB. 2005. Gene regulation at the single-cell level. Science 307:1962–1965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Galwey NW. 2014. Introduction to Mixed Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2008. Quantum Magnetism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Cate IP-T, Krolak-Schwerdt S, Glock S, Markova M. 2014. Improving Teachers’ Judgments, p. 45–61. In Krolak-Schwerdt, S, Glock, S, Böhmer, M (eds.), Teachers’ Professional Development: Assessment, Training, and Learning. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Evans K. 2017. Most People Would Rather Live Spoiler-Free Than Know The Future. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Applying Leading Practices for Managing Risk and Testing. GAO-17-322. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi RA. 2010. Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2010. By Honoring Their Past, the Giants Were Duly Rewarded. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied and Environmental Microbiology
AbbreviationAppl. Environ. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0099-2240
ISSN (online)1098-5336
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles