How to format your references using the Applied and Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winkler JR. 2013. Chemistry. FRETting over the spectroscopic ruler. Science 339:1530–1531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rizzoli SO, Betz WJ. 2004. The structural organization of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Science 303:2037–2039.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris HH, Pickering IJ, George GN. 2003. The chemical form of mercury in fish. Science 301:1203.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pham P, Bransteitter R, Petruska J, Goodman MF. 2003. Processive AID-catalysed cytosine deamination on single-stranded DNA simulates somatic hypermutation. Nature 424:103–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad SR, Cartwright M. 2014. Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2015. Transactional Memory. Foundations, Algorithms, Tools, and Applications: COST Action Euro-TM IC1001. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Siim B, Meret S. 2016. Right-wing Populism in Denmark: People, Nation and Welfare in the Construction of the ‘Other,’ p. 109–136. In Lazaridis, G, Campani, G, Benveniste, A (eds.), The Rise of the Far Right in Europe: Populist Shifts and “Othering.” Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Schrödinger’s Cat Gets A Reality Check. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Travel of Government Officials on Government Aircraft. T-NSIAD-96-85. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen TH. 2015. Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik JF. 2016. Reverse Mortgages Are Quietly Making a Comeback. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied and Environmental Microbiology
AbbreviationAppl. Environ. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0099-2240
ISSN (online)1098-5336
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles