How to format your references using the Hepatology, Medicine and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cherry M. Construction starts on largest telescope in the south. Nature. 2000 Sep 7;407(6800):4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee BW, Clark NA. Alignment of liquid crystals with patterned isotropic surfaces. Science. 2001 Mar 30;291(5513):2576–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Råberg L, Sim D, Read AF. Disentangling genetic variation for resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases in animals. Science. 2007 Nov 2;318(5851):812–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Davies TP, Fry HM, Wilson AG, Bishop SR. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic S. Advanced Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Faggini M, Lux T, editors. Coping with the Complexity of Economics. Milano: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Zamora-Martínez F, Castro-Bleda MJ, España-Boquera S. Fast Evaluation of Connectionist Language Models. In: Cabestany J, Sandoval F, Prieto A, Corchado JM, editors. Bio-Inspired Systems: Computational and Ambient Intelligence: 10th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Science of Meditation. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: AIMD-95-6.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Migues KP. A Qualitative Exploration of Retention of Experienced Teachers: Why Do They Stay? [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G. Death of a Red Carpet Reporter. New York Times. 2016 Dec 27;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cherry 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cherry 2000; Lee and Clark 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Clark 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Davies et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology, Medicine and Policy
AbbreviationHepatol. Med. Policy
ISSN (online)2059-5166

Other styles