How to format your references using the Hepatology, Medicine and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb B. Robots in invertebrate neuroscience. Nature. 2002 May 16;417(6886):359–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garrett TJ, Zhao C. Increased Arctic cloud longwave emissivity associated with pollution from mid-latitudes. Nature. 2006 Apr 6;440(7085):787–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naundorf B, Wolf F, Volgushev M. Unique features of action potential initiation in cortical neurons. Nature. 2006 Apr 20;440(7087):1060–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pennacchio LA, Olivier M, Hubacek JA, Cohen JC, Cox DR, Fruchart JC, et al. An apolipoprotein influencing triglycerides in humans and mice revealed by comparative sequencing. Science. 2001 Oct 5;294(5540):169–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sallaberry C. Geographical Information Retrieval in Textual Corpora. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Warf B, editor. Encounters and Engagements between Economic and Cultural Geography. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Erverdi N, Motro M. A Novel Approach in Developing Facial Esthetics in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients. In: Motro M, editor. Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis: ArchWise Appliance and Technique. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 31–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Marijuana Extract Reduces Seizures In Kids With Severe Epilepsy. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Increased Federal Telecommunications System Use by Strengthened Control Over Commercial Toll Calls Could Reduce Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Oct. Report No.: MASAD-82-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamora L. Azura digital health: Scheduling application and prescription service for women’s health [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Boris Fyodorov, 50, Dies; Guided Reforms in Russia. New York Times. 2008 Nov 22;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webb 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Garrett and Zhao 2006; Webb 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Garrett and Zhao 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Pennacchio et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology, Medicine and Policy
AbbreviationHepatol. Med. Policy
ISSN (online)2059-5166

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