How to format your references using the Hepatology, Medicine and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Up for review. Nature. 2004 Jul 29;430(6999):591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pawlowska TE, Taylor JW. Organization of genetic variation in individuals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature. 2004 Feb 19;427(6976):733–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dicke M, van Loon JJA, de Jong PW. Ecology. Ecogenomics benefits community ecology. Science. 2004 Jul 30;305(5684):618–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
de la Fuente-Fernández R, Ruth TJ, Sossi V, Schulzer M, Calne DB, Stoessl AJ. Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease. Science. 2001 Aug 10;293(5532):1164–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mcphee JE. Mastering Strategic Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Murín J, Kompiš V, Kutiš V, editors. Computational Modelling and Advanced Simulations. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Jonathan-Zamir T, Weisburd D, Hasisi B. The Effects of Security Threats on Antecedents of Police Legitimacy. In: Weisburd D, Hasisi B, editors. Policing Terrorism, Crime Control, and Police-Community Relations: Learning from the Israeli Experience. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 79–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy.

Blog post
Luntz S. Birds That Wake Up Earlier Have More Offspring [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Viability of Current Funding Structure for Aviation Activities and Observations on Funding Provisions of Reauthorization Proposals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jul. Report No.: GAO-07-1104T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvarin M. Special education paraeducators as instructional support [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy S. New Footprints. New York Times. 2014 May 28;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Pawlowska and Taylor 2004; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pawlowska and Taylor 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (de la Fuente-Fernández et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology, Medicine and Policy
AbbreviationHepatol. Med. Policy
ISSN (online)2059-5166

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