How to format your references using the Hepatology, Medicine and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hauser M. Our chimpanzee mind. Nature. 2005 Sep 1;437(7055):60–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armstrong FA, Fontecilla-Camps JC. Biochemistry. A natural choice for activating hydrogen. Science. 2008 Jul 25;321(5888):498–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang KH, Penmatsa A, Gouaux E. Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter. Nature. 2015 May 21;521(7552):322–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Szenker-Ravi E, Altunoglu U, Leushacke M, Bosso-Lefèvre C, Khatoo M, Thi Tran H, et al. Author Correction: RSPO2 inhibition of RNF43 and ZNRF3 governs limb development independently of LGR4/5/6. Nature. 2018 Sep;561(7722):E7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrison TJ. Functional Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
Abuzinada AH, Barth H-J, Krupp F, Böer B, Abdessalaam TZA, editors. Protecting the Gulf’s Marine Ecosystems from Pollution. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Sadler DR. Transforming Holistic Assessment and Grading into a Vehicle for Complex Learning. In: Joughin G, editor. Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 1–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hepatology, Medicine and Policy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Strange Microorganism Under The Sea May Be Missing Link In Evolution [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: AA-97-18(3).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betts K. Ready, Steady, Putt! An Exhibition About the History of Miniature Golf in America [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J. Who’s Too Young for an App? Testing the Limits. New York Times. 2016 Sep 19;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hauser 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Armstrong and Fontecilla-Camps 2008; Hauser 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armstrong and Fontecilla-Camps 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Szenker-Ravi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHepatology, Medicine and Policy
AbbreviationHepatol. Med. Policy
ISSN (online)2059-5166

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