How to format your references using the Helgoland Marine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Helgoland Marine Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egolf DA (2002) Statistical mechanics. Far from equilibrium. Science 296:1813–1815
A journal article with 2 authors
Weber WJ, Ewing RC (2000) Plutonium immobilization and radiation effects. Science 289:2051–2052
A journal article with 3 authors
Hao X, Martin-Rouault L, Cui M (2014) A self-adaptive method for creating high efficiency communication channels through random scattering media. Sci Rep 4:5874
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Brownell RL Jr, Tillman MF, di Sciara GN, et al (2000) Further scrutiny of scientific whaling. Science 290:1696a

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fanchi JR (2006) Math Refresher for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kari J, Kutrib M, Malcher A (eds) (2013) Cellular Automata and Discrete Complex Systems: 19th International Workshop, AUTOMATA 2013, Gießen, Germany, September 17-19, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Coughenour M, Behnke R, Lomas J, Price K (2008) Forage Distributions, Range Condition, and the Importance of Pastoral Movement in Central Asia - A Remote Sensing Study. In: Behnke R (ed) The Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences of Desertification in Central Asia. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 45–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Helgoland Marine Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Our Oceans Give New Insights On Elements Made In Supernovae. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Transatlantic Aviation: Effects of Easing Restrictions on U.S.-European Markets. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robert NA (2017) Cortile: World Building & the Traveler Archetype. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2009) When a Sport Draws People Together. New York Times B16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Egolf 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Weber and Ewing 2000; Egolf 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weber and Ewing 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Brownell et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleHelgoland Marine Research
AbbreviationHelgol. Mar. Res.
ISSN (print)1438-387X
ISSN (online)1438-3888
ScopeAquatic Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

Other styles