How to format your references using the Helgoland Marine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Helgoland Marine Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lastoskie C (2010) Chemistry. Caging carbon dioxide. Science 330:595–596
A journal article with 2 authors
Hauert C, Doebeli M (2004) Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game. Nature 428:643–646
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz SL, Syme DA, Shadwick RE (2001) High-speed swimming. Enhanced power in yellowfin tuna. Nature 410:770–771
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yin H-S, Wen X, Paterson RG, et al (2006) Structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its metastable, prefusion conformation. Nature 439:38–44

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armajani J (2011) Modern Islamist Movements. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Keith M (2010) Pro JPA 2: Mastering the JavaTM Persistence API. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Happe J, Theilmann W, Wert A (2011) Service Construction Meta-Model. In: Wieder P, Butler JM, Theilmann W, Yahyapour R (eds) Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing. Springer, New York, NY, pp 69–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Helgoland Marine Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Watch As Great White Shark Steals Bag of Chum From Boat. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2009 Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson SL (2014) “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L (2009) 2 Families, and No Room for Guilt. New York Times C33

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lastoskie 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hauert and Doebeli 2004; Lastoskie 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hauert and Doebeli 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHelgoland Marine Research
AbbreviationHelgol. Mar. Res.
ISSN (print)1438-387X
ISSN (online)1438-3888
ScopeAquatic Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

Other styles