How to format your references using the Helgoland Marine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Helgoland Marine Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helliwell JR (2013) Biochemistry. How to solve protein structures with an X-ray laser. Science 339:146–147
A journal article with 2 authors
Mishra SK, Hoon MA (2013) The cells and circuitry for itch responses in mice. Science 340:968–971
A journal article with 3 authors
Libby P, Ridker PM, Hansson GK (2011) Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature 473:317–325
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jiang W, Chang J, Jakana J, et al (2006) Structure of epsilon15 bacteriophage reveals genome organization and DNA packaging/injection apparatus. Nature 439:612–616

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller MA (2005) Internet Technologies Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Runarsson TP, Beyer H-G, Burke E, et al (eds) (2006) Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN IX: 9th International Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, September 9-13, 2006, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
McCarthy S, Miheljak V, Petrović N, et al (2013) Definitions of War, Terrorism, and Torture in the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. In: Malley-Morrison K, McCarthy S, Hines D (eds) International Handbook of War, Torture, and Terrorism. Springer, New York, NY, pp 49–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Helgoland Marine Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Shark Attacks Are So Unlikely, But So Fascinating. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Analysis of the Loan Interest Subsidy and Grant Methods of Financing Construction. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuru IC (2013) Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing and Assignment in No-Notice Evacuations. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink S, Risen J (2016) Suit Aims to Hold Contractors Accountable for C.I.A. Torture. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helliwell 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Helliwell 2013; Mishra and Hoon 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mishra and Hoon 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHelgoland Marine Research
AbbreviationHelgol. Mar. Res.
ISSN (print)1438-387X
ISSN (online)1438-3888
ScopeAquatic Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

Other styles