How to format your references using the Helgoland Marine Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Helgoland Marine Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman WE (2006) Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution. Nature 441:337–340
A journal article with 2 authors
Bramble DM, Lieberman DE (2004) Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432:345–352
A journal article with 3 authors
Heuberger M, Zäch M, Spencer ND (2001) Density fluctuations under confinement: when is a fluid not a fluid? Science 292:905–908
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Trumpp A, Refaeli Y, Oskarsson T, et al (2001) c-Myc regulates mammalian body size by controlling cell number but not cell size. Nature 414:768–773

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulkarni S, Harman G (2011) An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory: Kulkarni/Statistical Learning Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rothrock L, Narayanan S (eds) (2011) Human-in-the-Loop Simulations: Methods and Practice. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Joó B, Kalamkar DD, Vaidyanathan K, et al (2013) Lattice QCD on Intel® Xeon PhiTM Coprocessors. In: Kunkel JM, Ludwig T, Meuer HW (eds) Supercomputing: 28th International Supercomputing Conference, ISC 2013, Leipzig, Germany, June 16-20, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 40–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Helgoland Marine Research.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) First-Ever Footage Of A Great White Shark Napping Caught On Camera. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Reengineering: Opportunities to Improve. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chambers S (2008) Telecommunications megamergers: Impact on employee morale and turnover intention. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Still Wild For Animal Prints. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bramble and Lieberman 2004; Friedman 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bramble and Lieberman 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Trumpp et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHelgoland Marine Research
AbbreviationHelgol. Mar. Res.
ISSN (print)1438-387X
ISSN (online)1438-3888
ScopeAquatic Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

Other styles