How to format your references using the Genome Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lerner LS. 2000. Good and bad science in US schools. Nature 407: 287–290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Polyak VJ, Asmerom Y. 2001. Late Holocene climate and cultural changes in the southwestern United States. Science 294: 148–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao S, Zhou C, Yuan X. 2007. Palaeontology: undressing and redressing Ediacaran embryos. Nature 446: E9-10; discussion E10-1.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jankowsky E, Gross CH, Shuman S, Pyle AM. 2000. The DExH protein NPH-II is a processive and directional motor for unwinding RNA. Nature 403: 447–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Hossain ME, Moussavizadegan SH, Mustafiz S, Abou&xKassem JH. 2016. Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pham H, ed. 2006. Springer Handbook of Engineering Statistics. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Paulino N, Garção AS, Goes J. 2008. Digitally Programmable Delay. In Low Power Uwb Cmos Radar Sensors (eds. A.S. Garção and J. Goes), Analog Circuits and Signal Processing, pp. 115–166, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Chimps Use Spears To Hunt. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Aviation Safety: Improved Data Quality and Analysis Capabilities Are Needed as FAA Plans a Risk-Based Approach to Safety Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindemann-Litzsinger C. 2017. Investigating the Possible Relationship Between Participation in High School Athletics and First-Generation College Student Persistence to College Graduation. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. 2017. U.S. to Face Honduras With a Depleted Roster. New York Times, March 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lerner 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lerner 2000; Polyak and Asmerom 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Polyak and Asmerom 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jankowsky et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Research
AbbreviationGenome Res.
ISSN (print)1088-9051
ISSN (online)1549-5469

Other styles