How to format your references using the Genome Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharon M. 2013. Biochemistry. Structural MS pulls its weight. Science 340: 1059–1060.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mellor N, Bishopp A. 2014. Plant science. The innermost secrets of root development. Science 345: 622–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Branch TA, Hively DJ, Hilborn R. 2013. Is the ocean food provision index biased? Nature 495: E5-6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Goodman AA, Rosolowsky EW, Borkin MA, Foster JB, Halle M, Kauffmann J, Pineda JE. 2009. A role for self-gravity at multiple length scales in the process of star formation. Nature 457: 63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean D. 2012. Understanding Aerodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mehlhorn H, ed. 2016. Nanoparticles in the Fight Against Parasites. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wigley FM. 2014. Ischemic Digital Ulcers. In A Visual Guide to Scleroderma and Approach to Treatment (ed. M.D. Mayes), pp. 51–62, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014. Coldest Known Star Discovered Close To Our System. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Trucking Transportation: Information on Handling of Undercharge Claims. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Underwood VL. 2010. The effect of guided reading instruction on reading achievement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; A Contest of 2 Generations, Molded by 2 Different Wars. New York Times, August 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sharon 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sharon 2013; Mellor and Bishopp 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mellor and Bishopp 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Goodman et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Research
AbbreviationGenome Res.
ISSN (print)1088-9051
ISSN (online)1549-5469

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