How to format your references using the Genome Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoare MG. 2015. Astronomy. How young stars grow and become focused. Science 348: 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Au WWL, Benoit-Bird KJ. 2003. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins. Nature 423: 861–863.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pierce SE, Clack JA, Hutchinson JR. 2012. Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature 486: 523–526.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Han Y, Li S, Cao X, Yuan L, Wang Y, Yin Y, Qiu T, Dai H, Wang X. 2014. Different inhibitory effect and mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on normal cells and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep 4: 7134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolin DF, Worden BL, Wootton BM, Gilliam CM. 2017. CBT for Hoarding Disorder. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Qi H, Zhao B, eds. 2013. Cleaner Combustion and Sustainable World. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang H, Gero JS, Yen C-C. 2014. Exploring Designing Styles Using a Problem–Solution Division. In Design Computing and Cognition ’12 (ed. J.S. Gero), pp. 79–94, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Research.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. New Stem Cell Treatment Leaves Scientists “Stunned” As Wheelchair-Bound Stroke Patient Walks Again. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. GSA: Federal Communications Commission Planned Move to the Portals II Building. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ELBoushi TC. 2010. Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alvarez L. 2015. Families Hope Words Endure Past Shooting. New York Times, June 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoare 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hoare 2015; Au and Benoit-Bird 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Au and Benoit-Bird 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Research
AbbreviationGenome Res.
ISSN (print)1088-9051
ISSN (online)1549-5469

Other styles