How to format your references using the Genome Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromirski PD. 2009. Geophysics. Earth vibrations. Science 324: 1026–1027.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coleman P, Schofield AJ. 2005. Quantum criticality. Nature 433: 226–229.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreira D, Le Guyader H, Philippe H. 2000. The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts. Nature 405: 69–72.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kosak ST, Skok JA, Medina KL, Riblet R, Le Beau MM, Fisher AG, Singh H. 2002. Subnuclear compartmentalization of immunoglobulin loci during lymphocyte development. Science 296: 158–162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu HH. 2011. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Balmer AS. 2016. Synthetic Biology: A Sociology of Changing Practices. eds. K. Bulpin and S. Molyneux-Hodgson. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Woolf NJ, Priel A, Tuszynski JA. 2010. Nanocarriers and Intracellular Transport: Moving Along the Cytoskeletal Matrix. In Nanoneuroscience: Structural and Functional Roles of the Neuronal Cytoskeleton in Health and Disease (eds. A. Priel and J.A. Tuszynski), Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, pp. 129–176, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Research.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Chicago Doctor Investigated For Giving Kids Vaccinations Made With Vodka And Cat Saliva. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Update of Economic Analysis of Impact Aid Program Reflecting the Educational Amendments of 1974. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Black AM. 2006. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ohio Statewide Agricultural Leadership Program. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dunn S. 2015. Who Lives, Who Dies. New York Times, December 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromirski 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bromirski 2009; Coleman and Schofield 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coleman and Schofield 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kosak et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Research
AbbreviationGenome Res.
ISSN (print)1088-9051
ISSN (online)1549-5469

Other styles