How to format your references using the Genome Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp S. 2007. Anthropology. Some like it hot. Science 315: 946–947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mojzsis SJ, Harrison TM. 2002. Origin and significance of Archean quartzose rocks at Akilia, Greenland. Science 298: 917; discussion 917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carporzen L, Gilder SA, Hart RJ. 2005. Palaeomagnetism of the Vredefort meteorite crater and implications for craters on Mars. Nature 435: 198–201.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cervelli P, Segall P, Johnson K, Lisowski M, Miklius A. 2002. Sudden aseismic fault slip on the south flank of Kilauea volcano. Nature 415: 1014–1018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singleton TW, Singleton AJ. 2010. Fraud Auditing and Forensic Accounting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Watanabe H, Koizumi M, eds. 2010. Advanced Initiatives in Interprofessional Education in Japan: Japan Interprofessional Working and Education Network. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Li H, Yang W, Xu Y, Wang J, Huang L. 2016. A Real Time Wireless Interactive Multimedia System. In Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I (eds. F. Li, K. Shim, K. Zheng, and G. Liu), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 53–65, Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Research.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017. Trial Provides Tentative Hope Of “Functional Cure” For Some People Living With HIV. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Federal White-Collar Special Rate Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck NA. 2017. Mobile Apps for Cognitive Restructuring: A Review and Comparative Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B. 2016. MF Global’s Fall May Cost Corzine About $5 Million. New York Times, October 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp 2007; Mojzsis and Harrison 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mojzsis and Harrison 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Cervelli et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Research
AbbreviationGenome Res.
ISSN (print)1088-9051
ISSN (online)1549-5469

Other styles