How to format your references using the Genome Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Milonni PW. 2000. Quantum decay. A watched pot boils quicker. Nature 405: 525, 527.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu M, Ahlberg PE. 2004. The origin of the internal nostril of tetrapods. Nature 432: 94–97.
A journal article with 3 authors
Godfrey DI, Pellicci DG, Smyth MJ. 2004. Immunology. The elusive NKT cell antigen--is the search over? Science 306: 1687–1689.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wikelski M, Tarlow EM, Raim A, Diehl RH, Larkin RP, Visser GH. 2003. Avian metabolism: Costs of migration in free-flying songbirds. Nature 423: 704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boxer H. 2014. Profitable Day and Swing Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gonçalves B, Perra N, eds. 2015. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Barn BS, Clark T. 2010. A Domain Specific Language for Contextual Design. In Human-Centred Software Engineering: Third International Conference, HCSE 2010, Reykjavik, Iceland, October 14-15, 2010. Proceedings (eds. R. Bernhaupt, P. Forbrig, J. Gulliksen, and M. Lárusdóttir), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 46–61, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Research.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. The Face Of Scottish King Robert The Bruce Has Been Digitally Reconstructed. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Transportation Infrastructure: Information on Bridge Conditions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green JL. 2012. The leadership practices of executive women of local government. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2008. Putin to Take Helm of Party After Leaving The Presidency. New York Times, April 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Milonni 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Milonni 2000; Zhu and Ahlberg 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Ahlberg 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wikelski et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Research
AbbreviationGenome Res.
ISSN (print)1088-9051
ISSN (online)1549-5469

Other styles