How to format your references using the Heart Failure Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Failure Clinics (HFC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor I. Recession Watch: Learn to convince politicians. Nature 2009;457(7232):958–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Du J-L., Poo M-M. Rapid BDNF-induced retrograde synaptic modification in a developing retinotectal system. Nature 2004;429(6994):878–83.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mullen KT., Kim YJ., Gheiratmand M. Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection. Sci Rep 2014;4:7350.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Presgraves DC., Balagopalan L., Abmayr SM., et al. Adaptive evolution drives divergence of a hybrid inviability gene between two species of Drosophila. Nature 2003;423(6941):715–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner T. Merger Arbitrage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Ramiro Fariñas D., Oris M. New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition. vol. 12. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lim K., Milosevic M., Brock K., et al. Image-Guidance in External Beam Planning for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer. In: Viswanathan AN, Kirisits C, Erickson BE et al., editors. Gynecologic Radiation Therapy: Novel Approaches to Image-Guidance and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Failure Clinics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. What Would Happen If The International Space Station Was Hit By A Meteoroid? IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Justice Software Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu C. Regulatory functions of the actin cytoskeleton in B cell receptor signaling. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. New Pose On the Mat: The Sleuth. New York Times 2011:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Failure Clinics
AbbreviationHeart Fail. Clin.
ISSN (print)1551-7136
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles