How to format your references using the Heart Failure Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Failure Clinics (HFC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharon E. Materials science. Swell approaches for changing polymer shapes. Science 2012;335(6073):1179–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeVore NM., Scott EE. Structures of cytochrome P450 17A1 with prostate cancer drugs abiraterone and TOK-001. Nature 2012;482(7383):116–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Julsgaard B., Kozhekin A., Polzik ES. Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects. Nature 2001;413(6854):400–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Masip L., Pan JL., Haldar S., et al. An engineered pathway for the formation of protein disulfide bonds. Science 2004;303(5661):1185–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale W. Global Food Security and Supply. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Bélair J., Frigaard IA., Kunze H., et al. Mathematical and Computational Approaches in Advancing Modern Science and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Friedman H. Using Aikido and Transpersonal Psychology Concepts as Tools for Reconciling Conflict. In: Wagner W, editor. AiKiDô: The Trinity of Conflict Transformation. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2015. p. 115–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Failure Clinics.

Blog post
Andrews R. Skin Cells Seen “Walking” Towards Wounds. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Finance: Information on Funding Sources and Planned Capital Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mauger GS. Synoptic sensitivities of subtropical clouds: Separating aerosol effects from meteorology. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Suozzi Offers Plan to Shore Up Aviation Museum. New York Times 2006:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Failure Clinics
AbbreviationHeart Fail. Clin.
ISSN (print)1551-7136
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles