How to format your references using the Heart Failure Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Failure Clinics (HFC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. The fame game. Nature 2004;428(6981):447.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dauphas N., Pourmand A. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. Nature 2011;473(7348):489–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
González MC., Hidalgo CA., Barabási A-L. Understanding individual human mobility patterns. Nature 2008;453(7196):779–82.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Patton GC., Olsson CA., Skirbekk V., et al. Adolescence and the next generation. Nature 2018;554(7693):458–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro M. Financial Derivative and Energy Market Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Akiyama J. Treks into Intuitive Geometry: The World of Polygons and Polyhedra. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kensche D., Quix C., Chatti MA., et al. GeRoMe: A Generic Role Based Metamodel for Model Management. In: Spaccapietra S, Atzeni P, Fages F et al., editors. Journal on Data Semantics VIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 82–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Failure Clinics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Men And Women Biased About Studies Of STEM Gender Bias – In Opposite Directions. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Temporary Emergency Impact Aid Provided Education Support for Displaced Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams S. A study of childhood eating habits in the United States and their association with race and gender. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Scandinavian Cool That Warmed New York. New York Times 2011:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Failure Clinics
AbbreviationHeart Fail. Clin.
ISSN (print)1551-7136
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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