How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, Robert 2002 Breaking down biological borders. Nature 418(6899): 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, Matthew G., and Richard W. Carlson 2011 An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis. Nature 476(7360): 316–319.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehebauer, Matthias, Penelope Hayward, and Alfonso Martinez Arias 2006 Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5804): 1414–1415.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qureshi, Omar S., Yong Zheng, Kyoko Nakamura, Kesley Attridge, Claire Manzotti, Emily M. Schmidt, Jennifer Baker, et al. 2011 Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: a molecular basis for the cell-extrinsic function of CTLA-4. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332(6029): 600–603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garde, Francois, Daniel Aelenei, Laura Aelenei, Alessandra Scognamiglio, and Josef Ayoub 2017 Solution Sets for Net-Zero Energy Buildings. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Baxter, Judith 2016 Speaking as Women Leaders: Meetings in Middle Eastern and Western Contexts. Haleema Al A’aliEd. . London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Viale, Riccardo 2010 Different Cognitive Styles in the Academy-Industry Collaboration. In Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Abduction, Logic, and Computational Discovery. Lorenzo Magnani, Walter Carnielli, and Claudio Pizzi, eds., pp. 83–105. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise 2014 What would it look like if a person fell into a volcano? IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1977 Establishing a Proper Fee Schedule Under the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kluck, Marielos C. 2017 You are What You Read: Participation and Emancipation Problematized in Habacuc’s “Exposición #1.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda 2017 Fact Check: What Trump Got Wrong at His Rally. New York Times, February 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jonietz 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2003; Shalaev 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jackson and Carlson 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Kubota et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles