How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webster, Peter J. 2013 Meteorology: Improve weather forecasts for the developing world. Nature 493(7430): 17–19.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, Yaoda, and Marvin M. Chun 2006 Dissociable neural mechanisms supporting visual short-term memory for objects. Nature 440(7080): 91–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cotton, Colleen H., Jonathan Flint, and Thomas G. Campbell 2009 Is there an association between NPY and neuroticism? Nature 458(7238): E6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kresse, Georg, Michael Schmid, Evelyn Napetschnig, Maxim Shishkin, Lukas Köhler, and Peter Varga 2005 Structure of the ultrathin aluminum oxide film on NiAl(110). Science (New York, N.Y.) 308(5727): 1440–1442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling, Philippa 2013 Operational Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Finetti, Bruno de, ed. 2011 Mathematical Optimiation in Economics. Vol. 38. C.I.M.E. Summer Schools. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Robyns, Benoît, Bruno Francois, Philippe Degobert, and Jean Paul Hautier 2012 Fuzzy Supervisor. In Vector Control of Induction Machines: Desensitisation and Optimisation Through Fuzzy Logic. Bruno Francois, Philippe Degobert, and Jean Paul Hautier, eds., pp. 155–193. Power Systems. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Fang, Janet 2015 Nocturnal Dung Beetles Use Different Celestial Cues Than Those Active In The Day. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991 Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, Eunice Hope 2010 A personal narrative of a Korean immigrant to the United States: A quest for finding a niche. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda 2008 Justices Add More Cases On Job Discrimination. New York Times, January 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webster 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Webster 2013; Xu and Chun 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Chun 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Kresse et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles