How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Claussen, Eileen 2004 Climate policy. An effective approach to climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306(5697): 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bienz, Mariann, and Xi He 2012 Biochemistry. A lipid linchpin for Wnt-Fz docking. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337(6090): 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Jie, Lei Sheng, and Jing Liu 2014 Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects. Scientific reports 4: 7116.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Niven, Jeremy E., Mikko Vähäsöyrinki, Mika Kauranen, Roger C. Hardie, Mikko Juusola, and Matti Weckström 2003 The contribution of Shaker K+ channels to the information capacity of Drosophila photoreceptors. Nature 421(6923): 630–634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Panek, William, and Tylor Wentworth 2010 Mastering Microsoft® Windows® 7 Administration. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Veves, Aristidis, John M. Giurini, and Frank W. LoGerfo, eds. 2012 The Diabetic Foot: Medical and Surgical Management. 3rd ed. 2012. Contemporary Diabetes. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Chhieng, David C., and Edward B. Stelow 2007 Acinar Cell Carcinoma. In Pancreatic Cytopathology. Edward B. Stelow, ed., pp. 75–87. Essentials in Cytopathology. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Taub, Ben 2016 Wolves Are Gamblers But Dogs Play It Safe. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005 Federal Student Loan Repayment Program: OPM Could Build on Its Efforts to Help Agencies Administer the Program and Measure Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kashyap, Shashi Kant 2017 Bit Error Rate Performance of 4x2 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Conjugate Cancellation Techniques. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky 2003 World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Kidnapped Boy Freed After Three Years. New York Times, December 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Claussen 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Claussen 2004; Bienz and He 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bienz and He 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Niven et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles