How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, Michael 2015 Super-resolve me: from micro to nano. Nature 526(7573): 459–462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, Lisa D. S., and Stephen C. Jameson 2009 Immunology. A chronic need for IL-21. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5934): 1525–1526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keller, R. A., M. R. Fisk, and W. M. White 2000 Isotopic evidence for Late Cretaceous plume-ridge interaction at the Hawaiian hotspot. Nature 405(6787): 673–676.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bindi, Luca, Paul J. Steinhardt, Nan Yao, and Peter J. Lu 2009 Natural quasicrystals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5932): 1306–1309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Devolder, Pierre, Jacques Janssen, and Raimondo Manca 2012 Stochastic Methods for Pension Funds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bernstein, Daniel J., Johannes Buchmann, and Erik Dahmen, eds. 2009 Post-Quantum Cryptography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bilo, Rob A. C., Simon G. F. Robben, and Rick R. van Rijn 2010 Clavicles, Scapulas, Sternum, Vertebrae and Pelvis. In Forensic Aspects of Pediatric Fractures: Differentiating Accidental Trauma from Child Abuse. Simon G. F. Robben and Rick R. Rijn, eds., pp. 67–78. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo 2016 New State Of Matter Might Help With High-Temperature Superconductors. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1970 Utilization of Consultants and Experts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, Yi 2017 A Grant Proposal for Mindfulness-Based Self-Care Training for Child Welfare Workers. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, Nelson 2017 Invisibly Black. New York Times, January 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2015; Johnson and Jameson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Jameson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bindi et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles