How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. 2001 Life’s lessons in design. Nature 409(6818): 413–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Bosen, and Kenya Ohgushi 2013 Superconductivity in anti-post-Perovskite vanadium compounds. Scientific reports 3: 3381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Medzhitov, Ruslan, David S. Schneider, and Miguel P. Soares 2012 Disease tolerance as a defense strategy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335(6071): 936–941.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gandal, Michael J., Jillian R. Haney, Neelroop N. Parikshak, Virpi Leppa, Gokul Ramaswami, Chris Hartl, Andrew J. Schork, et al. 2018 Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap. Science (New York, N.Y.) 359(6376): 693–697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin, Peter 2010 OSx86. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Aldrich, Daniel P., Sothea Oum, and Yasuyuki Sawada, eds. 2015 Resilience and Recovery in Asian Disasters: Community Ties, Market Mechanisms, and Governance. Vol. 18. Risk, Governance and Society. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Straubhaar, Thomas 2012 Some Short Thoughts on “The Economics of Slavery.” In The Liberation of the Serfs: The Economics of Unfree Labor. Jürgen Georg Backhaus, ed., pp. 15–18. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy 2015 Baby Elephant Reunited With Mother Years After Being Kidnapped. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1980 Use of Computers by Firms Providing Architect-Engineer Services to Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grannis, Kerry Searle 2010 Secular spiritual quests in modern American novels, 1922–1960. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2015 Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times, December 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2001; Wang and Ohgushi 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Ohgushi 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gandal et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles