How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blake, David T. 2012 Neuroscience: how brains learn to control machines. Nature 483(7389): 284–285.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singer, Andrew L., and Gary A. Koretzky 2002 Control of T cell function by positive and negative regulators. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5573): 1639–1640.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, Jin, Cammie F. Lesser, and Stephen Lory 2008 The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth. Nature 456(7218): 112–115.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, Jie, Xiaolei Zhu, Thomas J. A. Wolf, Zheng Li, J. Pedro F. Nunes, Ryan Coffee, James P. Cryan, et al. 2018 Imaging CF3I conical intersection and photodissociation dynamics with ultrafast electron diffraction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 361(6397): 64–67.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazimierczuk, Marian 2013 High-Frequency Magnetic Components. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Choi, Lynn, Yunheung Paek, and Sangyeun Cho, eds. 2007 Advances in Computer Systems Architecture: 12th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 23-25, 2007. Proceedings. Vol. 4697. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rothe, Andreas 2005 Tree Species Management and Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater: A Central European Perspective. In Tree Species Effects on Soils: Implications for Global Change: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Trees and Soil Interactions, Implications to Global Climate Change August 2004 Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Dan Binkley and Oleg Menyailo, eds., pp. 71–83. NATO Science Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise 2014 Could We Grow Crops In Space? IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2003 Flexibility Demonstration Programs: Education Needs to Better Target Program Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffman, Kevin D. 2009 Teacher and administrator perceptions of a balanced school calendar and its effects on students in poverty. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James 2016 Home Runs, Not Surprisingly, Lift the Mets. New York Times, September 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blake 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Blake 2012; Singer and Koretzky 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singer and Koretzky 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

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