How to format your references using the Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leggett, A. J. 2005 The quantum measurement problem. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5711): 871–872.
A journal article with 2 authors
Somerville, Margaret A., and Ronald M. Atlas 2005 Ethics: a weapon to counter bioterrorism. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5717): 1881–1882.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ikegami, H., Y. Tsutsumi, and K. Kono 2013 Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341(6141): 59–62.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Natesh, Ramanathan, Sylva L. U. Schwager, Edward D. Sturrock, and K. Ravi Acharya 2003 Crystal structure of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-lisinopril complex. Nature 421(6922): 551–554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin, Wilson C. 2016 Resistivity Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Thaler, Alexander, and Daniel Watzenig, eds. 2014 Automotive Battery Technology. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, Long, Weisi Lin, and C-C Jay Kuo 2015 Metrics Fusion. In Visual Quality Assessment by Machine Learning. Weisi Lin and C-C Jay Kuo, eds., pp. 93–122. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy 2016 Watch A Gold Bar Get Crushed By A Hydraulic Press. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved. October 30, 2018. from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2011 Race to the Top: Characteristics of Grantees’ Amended Programs and Education’s Review Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, Ranish M. 2014 Watershed-Scale Evaluation of Flood Reduction Effect of Low Impact Development Designs. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser, Benjamin 2014 Mixed Motives Seen in Prosecutor’s Decision to Release Grand Jury Materials. New York Times, November 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leggett 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Leggett 2005; Somerville and Atlas 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Somerville and Atlas 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Natesh et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture, Medicine, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationCult. Med. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0165-005X
ISSN (online)1573-076X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles