How to format your references using the Studies in Philosophy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Philosophy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theise, Neil D. 2005. Now you see it, now you don’t. Nature 435: 1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Guangnan, and Charles Yanofsky. 2003. Tandem transcription and translation regulatory sensing of uncharged tryptophan tRNA. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 211–213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, X. F., T. T. Chen, and B. Zheng. 2014. Structure of local interactions in complex financial dynamics. Scientific reports 4: 5321.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tan, Xu, Luz Irina A. Calderon-Villalobos, Michal Sharon, Changxue Zheng, Carol V. Robinson, Mark Estelle, and Ning Zheng. 2007. Mechanism of auxin perception by the TIR1 ubiquitin ligase. Nature 446: 640–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rhee, Man Young. 2013. Wireless Mobile Internet Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Palesi, Maurizio, and Masoud Daneshtalab, ed. 2014. Routing Algorithms in Networks-on-Chip. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fijak, Monika, Sudhanshu Bhushan, and Andreas Meinhardt. 2009. The Immune Privilege of the Testis. In Immune Infertility: The Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Infertility, ed. Walter K. H. Krause and Rajesh K. Naz, 69–77. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Philosophy and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. A ten-year-old boy has discovered a 600 million year-old supernova. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 4.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Information Management: Leadership Needed in Managing Federal Telecommunications. IMTEC-87-9. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dues, Patricia M. 2010. Quantitative correlation of enterprise resource planning type, success, and technology leadership style in local government. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, Michael R. 2017. ISIS Holdouts in Raqqa Nearly Hemmed In by American-Backed Forces. New York Times, July 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Theise 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Yanofsky 2003; Theise 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Yanofsky 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Philosophy and Education
AbbreviationStud. Philos. Educ.
ISSN (print)0039-3746
ISSN (online)1573-191X

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