How to format your references using the Studies in Philosophy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Philosophy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brodholt, J. P. 2000. Pressure-induced changes in the compression mechanism of aluminous perovskite in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 407: 620–622.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bader, Joel S., and John Chant. 2006. Systems biology. When proteomes collide. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311: 187–188.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, Kyle M., Ofer Rog, and Julia Promisel Cooper. 2006. Semi-conservative DNA replication through telomeres requires Taz1. Nature 440: 824–828.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Orieux, Adeline, Joelle Boutari, Marco Barbieri, Mauro Paternostro, and Paolo Mataloni. 2014. Experimental linear-optics simulation of multipartite non-locality in the ground state of a quantum Ising ring. Scientific reports 4: 7184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French, Mark, Csaba Szepesvári, and Eric Rogers. 2005. Performance of Nonlinear Approximate Adaptive Controllers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schomburg, Harald. 2006. Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe: Results from Graduate Surveys from Twelve Countries. Edited by Ulrich Teichler. Vol. 15. Higher Education Dynamics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sellami, Mounir, and Mohamed Talbi. 2009. Quality Management in Information Systems for Combating Desertification and Dry Lands Management. In Desertification and Risk Analysis Using High and Medium Resolution Satellite Data: Training Workshop on Mapping Desertification, ed. Alberto Marini and Mohamed Talbi, 47–57. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Philosophy and Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. Google’s AlphaGo Just Beat The Chinese Grandmaster In A “God-Like” Victory. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Apprenticeship Training: Administration, Use, and Equal Opportunity. HRD-92-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyd, James L. 2017. Interactive simulations: Improving learning retention in knowledge-based online training courses. Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben, and Anne Barnard. 2016. In the Middle East, Another Conflict: What to Make of the Election of Trump. New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brodholt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Brodholt 2000; Bader and Chant 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bader and Chant 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Orieux et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Philosophy and Education
AbbreviationStud. Philos. Educ.
ISSN (print)0039-3746
ISSN (online)1573-191X

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