How to format your references using the Studies in Philosophy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Philosophy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lozier, M. Susan. 2010. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 1507–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huneycutt, Alex J., and Richard J. Saykally. 2003. Chemistry. Building solutions--one molecule at a time. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 1329–1330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boudvillain, M., A. de Lencastre, and A. M. Pyle. 2000. A tertiary interaction that links active-site domains to the 5’ splice site of a group II intron. Nature 406: 315–318.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Park, Sungjun, Soo Won Heo, Wonryung Lee, Daishi Inoue, Zhi Jiang, Kilho Yu, Hiroaki Jinno, et al. 2018. Self-powered ultra-flexible electronics via nano-grating-patterned organic photovoltaics. Nature 561: 516–521.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure. 1993. Particle Size Classifiers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Aimar, Thierry. 2016. Business Cycles in the Run of History. Edited by Francis Bismans and Claude Diebolt. SpringerBriefs in Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jobst, Andreas A. 2016. A Primer on Structured Finance. In Derivatives and Hedge Funds, ed. Stephen Satchell, 72–90. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Philosophy and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Could The Pill Save The Polar Bear? IFLScience. IFLScience. July 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Transportation: Federal Assessments Levied on Commercial Maritime Industry. T-RCED-93-24. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gauen, Karen Earhart. 2009. The impact of the Instructional Practices Inventory at an Illinois middle school. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, Ben. 2017. Pro Football; Jets Sign McCown. New York Times, March 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lozier 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Huneycutt and Saykally 2003; Lozier 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huneycutt and Saykally 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Philosophy and Education
AbbreviationStud. Philos. Educ.
ISSN (print)0039-3746
ISSN (online)1573-191X

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