How to format your references using the Studies in Philosophy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Philosophy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, Jeffrey M. 2015. Eight ways to clean a digital library. Nature 527: 123–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collins, Sinéad, and Graham Bell. 2004. Phenotypic consequences of 1,000 generations of selection at elevated CO2 in a green alga. Nature 431: 566–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kormendy, John, R. Bender, and M. E. Cornell. 2011. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges. Nature 469: 374–376.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Watanabe, Y., S. Yokobayashi, M. Yamamoto, and P. Nurse. 2001. Pre-meiotic S phase is linked to reductional chromosome segregation and recombination. Nature 409: 359–363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, Robert A. 2012. Extreme Tissue Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Anandarajan, Murugan, ed. 2010. e-Research Collaboration: Theory, Techniques and Challenges. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fu, Yibin. 2007. Linear and Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Coated or Uncoated Elastic Half-spaces. In Waves in Nonlinear Pre-Stressed Materials, ed. Michel Destrade and Giuseppe Saccomandi, 103–127. CISM Courses and Lectures. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Philosophy and Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. A Dwarf Planet Beyond Neptune Is Bigger Than We Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 15.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Information Technology: VA Has Taken Important Steps to Centralize Control of Its Resources, but Effectiveness Depends on Additional Planned Actions. GAO-08-449T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Braynen, William. 2012. Beyond Price Signaling: Choice, Information and Justice. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2005. Arts Briefly; Film Museum Closes in Moscow. New York Times, December 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Collins and Bell 2004; Perkel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collins and Bell 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Watanabe et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Philosophy and Education
AbbreviationStud. Philos. Educ.
ISSN (print)0039-3746
ISSN (online)1573-191X

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