How to format your references using the Studies in Philosophy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Philosophy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisher, Celia B. 2006. Public health. Clinical trials results databases: unanswered questions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311: 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schlegel, Thomas, and Stefan Schuster. 2008. Small circuits for large tasks: high-speed decision-making in archerfish. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 104–106.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montoya, José M., Stuart L. Pimm, and Ricard V. Solé. 2006. Ecological networks and their fragility. Nature 442: 259–264.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Zhiguo, Peng Ying, Peiying Li, Dan Zhang, Heqing Huang, Hao Tian, and Yanpeng Zhang. 2013. Switching suppression and enhancement of fluorescence and six-wave mixing by phase modulation. Scientific reports 3: 3417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svrcek, William Y., Donald P. Mahoney, and Brent R. Young. 2007. A Real-Time Approach to Process Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Menchetti, Pier Paolo Maria, ed. 2014. Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Lumbar Spine. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
von Oertzen, Wolfram, and Matko Milin. 2014. Covalent Binding on the Femtometer Scale: Nuclear Molecules. In Clusters in Nuclei, Volume 3, ed. Christian Beck, 147–182. Lecture Notes in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Philosophy and Education.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. Possible Treatment for MERS Revealed. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Consolidated Education Planning: State Education Agencies’ Implementation of Consolidated Planning at the Local Level. HEHS-99-33R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grasis, Juris Andris. 2008. Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat. Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Removes Official. New York Times, January 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fisher 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fisher 2006; Schlegel and Schuster 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schlegel and Schuster 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Philosophy and Education
AbbreviationStud. Philos. Educ.
ISSN (print)0039-3746
ISSN (online)1573-191X

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