How to format your references using the Studies in Philosophy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Philosophy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFiggans, Gordon. 2005. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions. Nature 433: E13; discussion E13-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhuo, Shuangmu, and Ming Ni. 2014. Label-free and real-time imaging of dehydration-induced DNA conformational changes in cellular nucleus using second harmonic microscopy. Scientific reports 4: 7416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Avitabile, Concetta, Luca Domenico D’Andrea, and Alessandra Romanelli. 2014. Circular Dichroism studies on the interactions of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial cells. Scientific reports 4: 4293.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nakagawa, Terunaga, Yifan Cheng, Elizabeth Ramm, Morgan Sheng, and Thomas Walz. 2005. Structure and different conformational states of native AMPA receptor complexes. Nature 433: 545–549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, Phillip I. 2005. Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and Microsoft Office Excel ®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Joux, Antoine, ed. 2009. Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2009: 28th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Cologne, Germany, April 26-30, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5479. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Achimugu, Philip, and Ali Selamat. 2015. A Hybridized Approach for Prioritizing Software Requirements Based on K-Means and Evolutionary Algorithms. In Computational Intelligence Applications in Modeling and Control, ed. Ahmad Taher Azar and Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan, 73–93. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Philosophy and Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. Check Out These Awesome Pictures Of A Space Shuttle Tank’s Trip Through Los Angeles. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 23.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. GAO-10-57. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pence, Patricia L. 2010. Emotional intelligence, motivation, and retention among undergraduate students attending associate-degree nursing programs in Illinois. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams, and Louise Story. 2011. U.S. Inquiry Said to Focus On a Fund In California. New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McFiggans 2005).
This sentence cites two references (McFiggans 2005; Zhuo and Ni 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhuo and Ni 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakagawa et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Philosophy and Education
AbbreviationStud. Philos. Educ.
ISSN (print)0039-3746
ISSN (online)1573-191X

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