How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. A. Surani, “Reprogramming of genome function through epigenetic inheritance,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6859, pp. 122–128, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. A. Zimmerman and A. S. Weyrich, “Immunology. Arsonists in rheumatoid arthritis,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5965, pp. 528–529, Jan. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. V. Samokhvalov, R. I. Shekhter, and A. I. Buzdin, “Stimulation of a singlet superconductivity in SFS weak links by spin-exchange scattering of cooper pairs,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5671, Jul. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Nedjic, M. Aichinger, J. Emmerich, N. Mizushima, and L. Klein, “Autophagy in thymic epithelium shapes the T-cell repertoire and is essential for tolerance,” Nature, vol. 455, no. 7211, pp. 396–400, Sep. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
An edited book
T. Wasserman, Depathologizing Psychopathology: The Neuroscience of Mental Illness and Its Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. E. R. Shanahan and W. Possart, “Wetting of Solids,” in Handbook of Adhesion Technology, L. F. M. da Silva, A. Öchsner, and R. D. Adams, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 65–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Male Black Widows Wreck Females’ Webs To Make Them Less Attractive,” IFLScience, Jul. 16, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Student Aid and Tax Benefits: Better Research and Guidance Will Facilitate Comparison of Effectiveness and Student Use,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-751, Sep. 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Rajagopal, “Assessing water management impacts of climate change for a semi-arid watershed in the southwestern US,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess, “This Lender Isn’t Fazed by U.S. Rule,” New York Times, p. B1, Sep. 07, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform.
ISSN (print)2168-2194
Computer Science Applications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Health Information Management

Other styles