How to format your references using the Applied Categorical Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Categorical Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M.: Public health: Prevention comes of age. Nature. 488, S11-3 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Toroczkai, Z., Bassler, K.E.: Network dynamics: jamming is limited in scale-free systems. Nature. 428, 716 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Scott, B.A., Avidan, M.S., Crowder, C.M.: Regulation of hypoxic death in C. elegans by the insulin/IGF receptor homolog DAF-2. Science. 296, 2388–2391 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sagarin, R.D., Alcorta, C.S., Atran, S., Blumstein, D.T., Dietl, G.P., Hochberg, M.E., Johnson, D.D.P., Levin, S., Madin, E.M.P., Madin, J.S., Prescott, E.M., Sosis, R., Taylor, T., Tooby, J., Vermeij, G.J.: Decentralize, adapt and cooperate. Nature. 465, 292–293 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beneke, D., Peters, M., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D.: Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Józefowska, J. ed: Just-In-Time Scheduling: Models and Algorithms for Computer and Manufacturing Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Wiegandt, E.: From Principles to Action: Incentives to Enforce Common Property Water Management. In: Wiegandt, E. (ed.) Mountains: Sources of Water, Sources of Knowledge. pp. 63–79. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Categorical Structures.

Blog post
Hale, T.: People Working In These Jobs Are Most Likely To Cheat On Their Partner,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Implementation of OMB Circular No. A-76 at Science Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sowers, P.A.: “Klanaheim”: Suburbia, civic identity, and the second Ku Klux Klan, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: DeGrom Displays His Old Form, but the Mets’ Offense Sputters, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Categorical Structures
AbbreviationAppl. Categ. Structures
ISSN (print)0927-2852
ISSN (online)1572-9095
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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