How to format your references using the Applied Categorical Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Categorical Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T.: NASA: trawling through the wreckage. Nature. 426, 754–755 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hibberd, J.M., Quick, W.P.: Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Nature. 415, 451–454 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiang, C., Chan, C.-K., Wang, J.: Proposal and numerical study of ultra-compact active hybrid plasmonic resonator for sub-wavelength lasing applications. Sci. Rep. 4, 3720 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, S., Zhang, H., Pu, H., Wang, G., Li, W., Leak, R.K., Chen, J., Liou, A.K., Hu, X.: n-3 PUFA supplementation benefits microglial responses to myelin pathology. Sci. Rep. 4, 7458 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Family Firm Institute, Inc.: Family Enterprise. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Perera, A.H., Drew, C.A., Johnson, C.J. eds: Expert Knowledge and Its Application in Landscape Ecology. Springer, New York, NY (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Hansson, T., Åkerman, G., Tjärnlund, U., Grunder, K., Zebühr, Y., Sundberg, H., Balk, L.: Biotoxicity measurements: the nanoinjection technique. In: Caiti, A. (ed.) Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project. pp. 31–38. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Categorical Structures.

Blog post
Davis, J.: More Sex Causes Male Burying Beetles To Evolve A Longer “Penis,”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Amtrak: Acela’s Continued Problems Underscore the Importance of Meeting Broader Challenges in Managing Large-Scale Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvan, R.: A mixed-methods study of mathematics and science achievement of refugee students in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Southall, A.: 2 Charged With Murder After a Buried Body Is Found in New Jersey, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Categorical Structures
AbbreviationAppl. Categ. Structures
ISSN (print)0927-2852
ISSN (online)1572-9095
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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