How to format your references using the Applied Categorical Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Categorical Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vella, D.: ROBOTICS. Two leaps forward for robot locomotion. Science. 349, 472–473 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Blander, J.M., Medzhitov, R.: Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from toll-like receptors. Science. 304, 1014–1018 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Newhall, C.G., Power, J.A., Punongbayan, R.S.: Pinatubo eruption. “To make grow.” Science. 295, 1241–1242 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dai, P., Mook, H.A., Aeppli, G., Hayden, S.M., Dogan, F.: Resonance as a measure of pairing correlations in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.6. Nature. 406, 965–968 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bennett, M.K.: Affine and Projective Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (1995)
An edited book
Ibragimov, N.H.: Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Briken, V.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genes Involved in Regulation of Host Cell Death. In: Divangahi, M. (ed.) The New Paradigm of Immunity to Tuberculosis. pp. 93–102. Springer, New York, NY (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Categorical Structures.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: How Many Of The Technologies Depicted In Star Trek Are Now Scientifically Possible?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Battlefield Automation: Status of the Army Command and Control System Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1986)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dubin-Thaler, B.J.: Evidence for hierarchical control of conserved, discrete motility types in crawling motility, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland, R., Timur, S.: Turkey Fires 15,000 More Public Workers in Crackdown, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Categorical Structures
AbbreviationAppl. Categ. Structures
ISSN (print)0927-2852
ISSN (online)1572-9095
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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