How to format your references using the Applied Categorical Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Categorical Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, B.R.: WHO needs change. Nature. 473, 143–145 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mumford, D., Tate, J.: Alexander Grothendieck (1928-2014). Nature. 517, 272 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hillebrandt, H., Friston, K.J., Blakemore, S.-J.: Effective connectivity during animacy perception--dynamic causal modelling of Human Connectome Project data. Sci. Rep. 4, 6240 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Han, Q., Hsieh, Y.-T., Meng, L., Wu, J.-L., Sun, P., Yao, E.-P., Chang, S.-Y., Bae, S.-H., Kato, T., Bermudez, V., Yang, Y.: High-performance perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 monolithic tandem solar cells. Science. 361, 904–908 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, P., Orrell, D.: The Money Formula. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2017)
An edited book
Duclos, J.-Y.: Poverty and Equity: Measurement, Policy and Estimation with DAD. Springer US, Boston, MA (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Nkunzimana, T., Custodio, E., Pérez-Hoyos, A., Kayitakire, F.: Assessing MDG Achievements Through Under-5 Child Stunting in the East African Community: Some Insights from Urban Versus Rural Areas in Burundi and Rwanda Using DHS2010. In: Heshmati, A. (ed.) Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa: A Multi-faceted Economic Approach. pp. 61–86. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Categorical Structures.

Blog post
Fang, J.: The California Two-Spot Is The First Octopus To Have Its Genome Sequenced


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Quality Planning Processes at Selected Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, M.S.: Integrating Emergency Medical Services Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kingman, K.: Needle and Thread and the Chinatown Night, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Categorical Structures
AbbreviationAppl. Categ. Structures
ISSN (print)0927-2852
ISSN (online)1572-9095
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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