How to format your references using the Health Services and Delivery Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Services and Delivery Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roenneberg T. Chronobiology: the human sleep project. Nature 2013;498:427–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pashkin A, Leitenstorfer A. Physics. Particle physics in a superconductor. Science 2014;345:1121–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghaffari HO, Nasseri MHB, Young RP. Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci Rep 2014;4:5011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Statnikov A, Alekseyenko AV, Li Z, Henaff M, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ, et al. Microbiomic signatures of psoriasis: feasibility and methodology comparison. Sci Rep 2013;3:2620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vorbrüggen H. Silicon-Mediated Transformations of Functional Groups. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Buchleitner A, Viviescas C, Tiersch M, editors. Entanglement and Decoherence: Foundations and Modern Trends. vol. 768. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee C-C, Hervé JM. A Discontinuously Movable Constant Velocity Shaft Coupling of Koenigs Joint Type. In: Dai JS, Zoppi M, Kong X, editors. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I. London: Springer; 2012. p. 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Services and Delivery Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Information On Nerve Repair May Bring Hope To Spinal Injury Patients. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Direct Loan Default Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ireland KS. The Role Family Communication Patterns Play in Shaping People’s Responses and Perceived Outcomes to Boundary Turbulence via Privacy Breaches in Their Personal Relationships. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2017; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Quickly Lose Niese to Injury but Still Get a Win. New York Times 2016:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Services and Delivery Research
AbbreviationHealth Serv. Deliv. Res.
ISSN (print)2050-4349
ISSN (online)2050-4357

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