How to format your references using the Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Höfte H. Plant biology. A Baroque residue in red wine. Science. 2001;294:795–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
May M, Davis J. Preparing for the worst. Nature. 2006;443:907–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mayle FE, Burbridge R, Killeen TJ. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests. Science. 2000;290:2291–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Freyd JJ, Putnam FW, Lyon TD, Becker-Blease KA, Cheit RE, Siegel NB, et al. Psychology. The science of child sexual abuse. Science. 2005;308:501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Sun F, Hu D, Liu H, editors. Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, Beijing, China, Dec 2012 (CSIP2012). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Xiao Y, Ai P, Wang H, Hsu C-H, Cui W. Efficient Location-Dependent Skyline Queries in Wireless Broadcast Environments. In: Cheng R, Cui B, Zhang Z, Cai R, Xu J, editors. Web Technologies and Applications: 17th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2015, Guangzhou, China, September 18-20, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Research.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Fly through distant galaxies with Hubble eXtreme Deep Field [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/fly-through-distant-galaxies-hubble-extreme-deep-field/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Rail Transit: Additional Federal Leadership Would Enhance FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Jul. Report No.: GAO-06-821.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wilbur LJ. Perceptions of Missouri Public School Early Childhood Teachers and Administrators in Regard to Technology and Current Practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Steel E, Grynbaum MM. Top Fox News Lawyer, Key Figure in Sexual Harassment Cases, Goes on Leave. New York Times. 2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Research
AbbreviationCancer Res.
ISSN (print)0008-5472
ISSN (online)1538-7445
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

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