How to format your references using the Health Care Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Care Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spoor, F. (2015). Palaeoanthropology: The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature, 521(7553), 432–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burke, A., & Robinson, L. F. (2012). The Southern Ocean’s role in carbon exchange during the last deglaciation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6068), 557–561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meschke, M., Guichard, W., & Pekola, J. P. (2006). Single-mode heat conduction by photons. Nature, 444(7116), 187–190.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lin, Y., Skaff, H., Emrick, T., Dinsmore, A. D., & Russell, T. P. (2003). Nanoparticle assembly and transport at liquid-liquid interfaces. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5604), 226–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiher, M., & Wolf, A. (2014). Relativistic Quantum Chemistry. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Yu, L. (2008). Bio-Inspired Credit Risk Analysis: Computational Intelligence with Support Vector Machines. (S. Wang, K. K. Lai, & L. Zhou, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Omar, H. A., & Zhuang, W. (2014). VeMAC Performance Evaluation for VANET Safety Applications. In W. Zhuang (Ed.), Time Division Multiple Access For Vehicular Communications (pp. 39–58). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Care Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 30). Two More Mysterious Siberian Craters Discovered. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Meteorological Satellites (No. NSIAD-95-87R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabak, S. (2015). Aspiring States at the International Court of Justice (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, October 2). Trump, the Tax Code and a Loophole for the Rich. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Care Analysis
AbbreviationHealth Care Anal.
ISSN (print)1065-3058
ISSN (online)1573-3394
ScopeHealth Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

Other styles