How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Gavaghan. 2001. Current role suggests the shape of future work opportunities. Nature 409, 6822 (February 2001), 963–964.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yohai Kaspi and Tapio Schneider. 2011. Winter cold of eastern continental boundaries induced by warm ocean waters. Nature 471, 7340 (March 2011), 621–624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bill Shipley, Denis Vile, and Eric Garnier. 2006. From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity. Science 314, 5800 (November 2006), 812–814.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. A. Radovan, N. A. Fortune, T. P. Murphy, S. T. Hannahs, E. C. Palm, S. W. Tozer, and D. Hall. 2003. Magnetic enhancement of superconductivity from electron spin domains. Nature 425, 6953 (September 2003), 51–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larry Kimberlin, Alex zur Linden, and Lynn Ruoff. 2016. Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rajiv Khosla, Robert J. Howlett, and Lakhmi C. Jain (Eds.). 2005. Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 9th International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiyoshi Eguchi and Naoyuki Ochiai. 2014. Movement Disorder and Rehabilitation. In Cybernics: Fusion of human, machine and information systems, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Kenji Suzuki and Yasuhisa Hasegawa (eds.). Springer Japan, Tokyo, 89–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2016. Optical Illusion Zebra Crossings Are Appearing In India. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: Federal Coordination for Responding to In-flight Security Threats Has Matured, but Procedures Can Be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Candice Kirk. 2017. Early Maladaptive Attachment Styles and Psychological Aggression in Romantic Relationships: A Content Analysis, 2006-2016. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. 2016. New York City’s Sconces. New York Times, RE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Mathematical Software
AbbreviationACM Trans. Math. Softw.
ISSN (print)0098-3500
ISSN (online)1557-7295

Other styles