How to format your references using the Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Danzon, P.M., 2007. At what price? Nature 449, 176–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, X., Duncan, J.H., 2003. The effects of surfactants on spilling breaking waves. Nature 421, 520–523.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cotton, C.H., Flint, J., Campbell, T.G., 2009. Is there an association between NPY and neuroticism? Nature 458, E6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blankenburg, F., Taskin, B., Ruben, J., Moosmann, M., Ritter, P., Curio, G., Villringer, A., 2003. Imperceptible stimuli and sensory processing impediment. Science 299, 1864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raymond, S.U., 2013. Recession, Recovery, and Renewal: Long-Term Nonprofit Strategies for Rapid Economic Change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Páez, A., Gallo, J., Buliung, R.N., Dall’erba, S. (Eds.), 2010. Progress in Spatial Analysis: Methods and Applications, Advances in Spatial Science, The Regional Science Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fileni, A., Galletti, G., Mirk, P., 2012. La comunicazione radiologica odierna, in: Schiavon, F., Guglielmi, G., Rotondo, A. (Eds.), La Comunicazione Radiologica Nella Società Del Benessere. Springer, Milano, pp. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. A Melting Arctic Demands More – Not Less – Research On Earth Science [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Economic Espionage: Information on Threat From U.S. Allies (No. T-NSIAD-96-114). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clemons, B.L., 2010. A correlational study of the ventures for excellence interview-rating system and first year teacher evaluations (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. Clinton Names Team to Probe U.S. Agencies. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Danzon, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Danzon, 2007; Liu and Duncan, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Duncan, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Blankenburg et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
AbbreviationEnviron. Innov. Soc. Transit.
ISSN (print)2210-4224

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