How to format your references using the Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duffy, M.A., 2014. Epidemiology. It helps to be well connected. Science 344, 1229–1230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fabian, A.C., Miller, J.M., 2002. Astronomy. Black holes reveal their innermost secrets. Science 297, 947–948.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tao, C., Cullen, W.G., Williams, E.D., 2010. Visualizing the electron scattering force in nanostructures. Science 328, 736–740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong, S.-N., Yao, Y.-P., Li, J.-Q., Song, Y.-J., Liu, Y.-K., Li, X.-G., 2013. Room temperature multiferroicity in Bi(4.2)K(0.8)Fe(2)O(9+δ). Sci. Rep. 3, 1245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak, P., 2011. Fine Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Swapna, M., 2012. Molecular Marker Applications for Improving Sugar Content in Sugarcane, SpringerBriefs in Plant Science. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Canuto, C., Tabacco, A., 2015. Local comparison of functions. Numerical sequences and series, in: Tabacco, A. (Ed.), Mathematical Analysis I, UNITEXT. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 123–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Why Are Humans Altruistic? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Chinese Version) (No. GAO-06-950). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rabalais, M.E., 2014. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kennedy, R., Davey, M., Yaccino, S., 2014. Foundations Aim to Save Pensions in Detroit Crisis. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duffy, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Duffy, 2014; Fabian and Miller, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fabian and Miller, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
AbbreviationEnviron. Innov. Soc. Transit.
ISSN (print)2210-4224

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