How to format your references using the Health and Quality of Life Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bates M. GE Prize-winning essay. A new approach to fluorescence microscopy. Science. 2010;330:1334–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sonenberg N, Filipowicz W. Retrospective. Aaron Shatkin (1934-2012). Science. 2012;337:309.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grutzendler J, Kasthuri N, Gan W-B. Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex. Nature. 2002;420:812–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bower AS, Le Cann B, Rossby T, Zenk W, Gould J, Speer K, et al. Directly measured mid-depth circulation in the northeastern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature. 2002;419:603–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McLeod LE. Leading with Noble Purpose. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Velázquez A. Standardized Hierarchical Vegetation Classification: Mexican and Global Patterns. Medina García C, Durán Medina E, Amador A, Gopar Merino LF, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Harvey S, Baudet M-L. Proteomic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Nervous System. In: Clelland JD, editor. Genomics, Proteomics, and the Nervous System. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 137–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. How The Hobbits Kept Their Tools As They Shrank Into Island Life [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Protest of Nonresponsive Determination. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Dec. Report No.: B-178747.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ficchi G. A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Herskovic L. Blunt Doctor Cures Headaches. New York Times. 2013 Apr 1;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
AbbreviationHealth Qual. Life Outcomes
ISSN (online)1477-7525
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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