How to format your references using the Health and Quality of Life Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gwynne P. Microbiology: There’s gold in them there bugs. Nature. 2013;495:S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chen Y, Dorn GW 2nd. PINK1-phosphorylated mitofusin 2 is a Parkin receptor for culling damaged mitochondria. Science. 2013;340:471–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bacles CFE, Lowe AJ, Ennos RA. Effective seed dispersal across a fragmented landscape. Science. 2006;311:628.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Prasad V, Strömberg CAE, Alimohammadian H, Sahni A. Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers. Science. 2005;310:1177–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bittner M. Temporality: Universals and Variation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Soetaert K, Herman PMJ, editors. A Practical Guide to Ecological Modelling: Using R as a Simulation Platform. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dias Pimenta HC, Gouvinhas RP, Evans S. Cleaner Production as a Corporate Sustainable Tool: A Study of Companies from Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. In: Seliger G, editor. Sustainable Manufacturing: Shaping Global Value Creation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 23–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Evidence Found For The Higgs Boson Direct Decay Into Fermions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/physics/evidence-found-higgs-boson-direct-decay-fermions/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Earth Resources Information Satellite System Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jan. Report No.: B-181426.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Porter LA. Defense Support of Civilian Authorities (DSCA): What emergency managers need to know [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Baker L. The Green RV. New York Times. 2008 Nov 7;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
AbbreviationHealth Qual. Life Outcomes
ISSN (online)1477-7525
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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