How to format your references using the Health and Quality of Life Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fisk Z. Physics. The thermodynamics of quantum critical points. Science. 2009;325:1348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Soles CL, Ding Y. Materials science. Nanoscale polymer processing. Science. 2008;322:689–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sobolevsky AI, Rosconi MP, Gouaux E. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor. Nature. 2009;462:745–56.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen H, Dong W, Ge J, Wang C, Wu X, Lu W, et al. Ultrafine sulfur nanoparticles in conducting polymer shell as cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1910.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Modarres M, Amiri M, Jackson C. Probabilistic Physics of Failure Approach to Reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Atangana A. Tropical Agroforestry. Khasa D, Chang S, Degrande A, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fröhlich F, Theis FJ, Hasenauer J. Uncertainty Analysis for Non-identifiable Dynamical Systems: Profile Likelihoods, Bootstrapping and More. In: Mendes P, Dada JO, Smallbone K, editors. Computational Methods in Systems Biology: 12th International Conference, CMSB 2014, Manchester, UK, November 17-19, 2014, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 61–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. There Are Also Drawbacks To Being Bilingual [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/there-are-also-drawbacks-being-bilingual/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Immigration Benefits System: Better Informed Decision Making Needed on Transformation Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 May. Report No.: GAO-15-415.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Konzem SR. Tenability and Computability of Generalized Pólya Urns [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. A Sport Fails in the Most Important Category: Integrity. New York Times. 2011 Sep 3;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
AbbreviationHealth Qual. Life Outcomes
ISSN (online)1477-7525
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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