How to format your references using the Health and Quality of Life Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sincell M. INSTITUTIONAL PROFILE: Scientific Ballooning’s Buoyant Mood. Science. 2000;289:534–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bruno JF. The impact of climate change on the world’s marine ecosystems. Science. 2010;328:1523–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hahnloser RHR, Kozhevnikov AA, Fee MS. An ultra-sparse code underlies the generation of neural sequences in a songbird. Nature. 2002;419:65–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li J, Liu M, Zong J, Tan P, Wang J, Wang X, et al. Genetic variations in IL1A and IL1RN are associated with the risk of preeclampsia in Chinese Han population. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. DiGrado BD, Thorp GA. The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Voros N, Mukherjee A, Sklavos N, Masselos K, Huebner M, editors. VLSI 2010 Annual Symposium: Selected papers. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wu XB, Wu XH, Guo JH, Li SD, Liu R, McDonald MJ, et al. Polyanion Compounds as Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries. In: Zhang Z, Zhang SS, editors. Rechargeable Batteries: Materials, Technologies and New Trends. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 93–134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. One Of The Rarest Animals In The World Makes A Surprise Appearance. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Close Air Support: Principal Issues and Aircraft Choices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Dec. Report No.: B-173850.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Winton TW. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Standards-based Grading and Student Performance [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mueller B, Schweber N. Brooklyn Fire Kills 7 Children, Worst Toll in City Since 2007. New York Times. 2015 Mar 22;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
AbbreviationHealth Qual. Life Outcomes
ISSN (online)1477-7525
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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