How to format your references using the Information Processing and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davidson, E. H. (2010). Emerging properties of animal gene regulatory networks. Nature, 468(7326), 911–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bao, J., & Bawendi, M. G. (2015). A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer. Nature, 523(7558), 67–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charlebois, R. L., Beiko, R. G., & Ragan, M. A. (2003). Microbial phylogenomics: Branching out. Nature, 421(6920), 217.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jeong, P.-Y., Jung, M., Yim, Y.-H., Kim, H., Park, M., Hong, E., Lee, W., Kim, Y. H., Kim, K., & Paik, Y.-K. (2005). Chemical structure and biological activity of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer-inducing pheromone. Nature, 433(7025), 541–545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Böhmer, E. (2015). Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Maffei, M., & Tuosto, E. (Eds.). (2014). Trustworthy Global Computing: 9th International Symposium, TGC 2014, Rome, Italy, September 5-6, 2014. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 8902). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Xing, Y., Qin, S., & Wang, T. (2010). Study of Subdivision Surface Modelling for Spiral Bevel Gear Manufacturing. In G. Q. Huang, K. L. Mak, & P. G. Maropoulos (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th CIRP-Sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology (pp. 57–66). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing and Management.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 26). Lab Experiment Accidentally Gave Students Caffeine Dose Equal To 300 Coffees. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Highway Fund Audit (AIMD-97-14R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winter, J. M. (2010). Investigating the biosynthesis of halogenated meroterpenoid natural products from marine actinomycetes [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, August 28). A Ratings Milestone For ‘Game of Thrones.’ New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davidson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bao & Bawendi, 2015; Davidson, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bao & Bawendi, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Charlebois et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jeong et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing and Management
AbbreviationInf. Process. Manag.
ISSN (print)0306-4573
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Media Technology
Library and Information Sciences

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