How to format your references using the Information Processing and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velasquez-Manoff, M. (2015). Gut microbiome: the peacekeepers. Nature, 518(7540), S3-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumaret, R., & Ouazzani, N. (2001). Plant genetics. Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Nature, 413(6857), 700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whittier, S. K., Hengge, A. C., & Loria, J. P. (2013). Conformational motions regulate phosphoryl transfer in related protein tyrosine phosphatases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6148), 899–903.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pryor, W. R., Rymer, A. M., Mitchell, D. G., Hill, T. W., Young, D. T., Saur, J., … Zhou, X. (2011). The auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn. Nature, 472(7343), 331–333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge, M. (2016). Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhu, X., & Zeichner, K. (Eds.). (2013). Preparing Teachers for the 21st Century. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Herfeld, C., & Schaubroeck, K. (2013). The Importance of Commitment for Morality: How Harry Frankfurt’s Concept of Care Contributes to Rational Choice Theory. In B. Musschenga & A. van Harskamp (Eds.), What Makes Us Moral? On the capacities and conditions for being moral (pp. 51–72). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing and Management.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, May 4). Astronomers Have Discovered A Pulsating White Dwarf. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s First-Year Implementation of the Federal Manager’s Financial Integrity Act (No. NSIAD-84-100). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yi, M. (2015). Interrater reliability between novice and expert functional movement screen raters (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, August 16). ‘Trade’ Ensures Duda Can’t Shake That Pesky Instagram Account. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Velasquez-Manoff, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lumaret & Ouazzani, 2001; Velasquez-Manoff, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lumaret & Ouazzani, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Whittier, Hengge, & Loria, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pryor et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing and Management
AbbreviationInf. Process. Manag.
ISSN (print)0306-4573
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Media Technology
Library and Information Sciences

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