How to format your references using the Information Processing and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbier, E. (2010). How is the Global Green New Deal going? Nature, 464(7290), 832–833.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jayawardhana, R., & Ivanov, V. D. (2006). Discovery of a young planetary-mass binary. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5791), 1279–1281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cartwright, H. N., Humphries, J. A., & Smith, L. G. (2009). PAN1: a receptor-like protein that promotes polarization of an asymmetric cell division in maize. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5914), 649–651.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Whitehouse, I., Rando, O. J., Delrow, J., & Tsukiyama, T. (2007). Chromatin remodelling at promoters suppresses antisense transcription. Nature, 450(7172), 1031–1035.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riehle, F. (2003). Frequency Standards. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ding, C., Shao, Z., & Zheng, R. (Eds.). (2010). Network and Parallel Computing: IFIP International Conference, NPC 2010, Zhengzhou, China, September 13-15, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6289). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Streffer, C., Gethmann, C. F., Kamp, G., Kröger, W., Rehbinder, E., Renn, O., & Röhlig, K.-J. (2012). Waste management strategies and disposal design. In C. F. Gethmann, G. Kamp, W. Kröger, E. Rehbinder, O. Renn, & K.-J. Röhlig (Eds.), Radioactive Waste: Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal (pp. 111–199). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 22). Africa’s Rhinos Hog The Limelight While Their Asian Cousins Head For Extinction. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). District of Columbia Public Schools: While Early Reform Efforts Tackle Critical Management Issues, a District-Wide Strategic Education Plan Would Help Guide Long-Term Efforts (GAO-08-549T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shambra, S. M. (2017). Automated Vulnerability Assessment of Mobile Device Vulnerabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, February 27). August Wilson Has a Biographer. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbier, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Barbier, 2010; Jayawardhana & Ivanov, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jayawardhana & Ivanov, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Cartwright et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Whitehouse et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing and Management
AbbreviationInf. Process. Manag.
ISSN (print)0306-4573
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Media Technology
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles