How to format your references using the Information Processing and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2009). Climate future. Nature, 459(7247), 628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghabrial, A. S., & Krasnow, M. A. (2006). Social interactions among epithelial cells during tracheal branching morphogenesis. Nature, 441(7094), 746–749.
A journal article with 3 authors
Golding, N. L., Staff, N. P., & Spruston, N. (2002). Dendritic spikes as a mechanism for cooperative long-term potentiation. Nature, 418(6895), 326–331.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kitano, M., Nakaya, M., Nakamura, T., Nagata, S., & Matsuda, M. (2008). Imaging of Rab5 activity identifies essential regulators for phagosome maturation. Nature, 453(7192), 241–245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F. A. (2007). Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cohen, R. L. (2006). String Topology and Cyclic Homology (K. Hess & A. A. Voronov, Eds.). Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Guceac, I., & Serotila, I. (2014). The Opportunity of Recognition of the Right to Water as a Fundamental Human Right. In G. Duca (Ed.), Management of Water Quality in Moldova (pp. 61–69). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing and Management.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, January 11). You Should Be Looking For Love In These Top-Ranked Romantic States. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Strategies to Improve Communication Between Program and Financial Managers (No. 156238). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davenport, L. C. (2008). Behavior and ecology of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in oxbow lakes of the Manú Biosphere Reserve, Perú [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M. (2017, September 5). Business Leaders Urge Trump to Keep Shield in Place. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ghabrial & Krasnow, 2006; Goldston, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ghabrial & Krasnow, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Golding et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kitano et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing and Management
AbbreviationInf. Process. Manag.
ISSN (print)0306-4573
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Media Technology
Library and Information Sciences

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