How to format your references using the Health and Human Rights Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health and Human Rights Journal (HHR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. D. O’Rourke, “The science of sustainable supply chains,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344/6188 (2014), pp. 1124–1127
A journal article with 2 authors
1. K. L. Hoffman, and B. L. McNaughton, “Coordinated reactivation of distributed memory traces in primate neocortex,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297/5589 (2002), pp. 2070–2073
A journal article with 3 authors
1. J. S. Paige, K. Y. Wu, and S. R. Jaffrey, “RNA mimics of green fluorescent protein,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333/6042 (2011), pp. 642–646
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. T. P. Denham, S. G. Haberle, C. Lentfer, et al., “Origins of agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of New Guinea,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301/5630 (2003), pp. 189–193

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. R. W. Fitzgerald, and B. J. Meacham, Fire Performance Analysis for Buildings (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017)
An edited book
1. K. Otto-Zimmermann (ed), Resilient Cities 2: Cities and Adaptation to Climate Change – Proceedings of the Global Forum 2011 (Springer Netherlands, 2012), p. L, 438 p
A chapter in an edited book
1. M. Hayashi, and D. B. Edwards, “Policy Intention versus Policy Implementation,” in Y. Kitamura, D. B. Edwards, C. Sitha, et al. (eds), The Political Economy of Schooling in Cambodia: Issues of Quality and Equity (Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016), pp. 77–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health and Human Rights Journal.

Blog post
1. J. Fang, Scientists Develop Shatterproof iPhone Screens, IFLScience, 2014. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Certain Weaknesses in the Administration of the Neighborhood Youth Corps Out-of-School Project in Cleveland, Ohio (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. L. M. Koons, An outreach program for homeless individuals: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. C. Hauser, “Secret Service Agent Under Investigation,” New York Times, 2017, A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth and Human Rights Journal
ISSN (print)1079-0969
ISSN (online)2150-4113

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