How to format your references using the Breast Cancer Research and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M (2011) Genomics: Genomes in three dimensions. Nature 470:289–294
A journal article with 2 authors
Coffin JM, Stoye JP (2009) Virology. A new virus for old diseases? Science 326:530–531
A journal article with 3 authors
Rossa FD, Dercole F, Piccardi C (2013) Profiling core-periphery network structure by random walkers. Sci Rep 3:1467
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chabot V, Kim B, Sloper B, et al (2013) High yield production and purification of few layer graphene by gum arabic assisted physical sonication. Sci Rep 3:1378

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bersuker IB (2010) Electronic Structure and Properties of Transition Metal Compounds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Borisov N, Golle P (2007) Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 7th International Symposium, PET 2007 Ottawa, Canada, June 20-22, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang N, Lin J, Jing J, Gao N (2012) RIKE: Using Revocable Identities to Support Key Escrow in PKIs. In: Bao F, Samarati P, Zhou J (eds) Applied Cryptography and Network Security: 10th International Conference, ACNS 2012, Singapore, June 26-29, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 48–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Omsin, The Coin-Chomping Turtle, Has Died Just Weeks After Surgery. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Use of ADP Equipment Operated by Three or Four Typical Government Contractors. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malekian A (2009) Combinatorial problems in online advertising. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bray C, de la MERCED MJ (2017) QVC and Home Shopping Network to Join Forces in $2.1 Billion Merger. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBreast Cancer Research and Treatment
AbbreviationBreast Cancer Res. Treat.
ISSN (print)0167-6806
ISSN (online)1573-7217
ScopeCancer Research

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